Information Technology (IT)
refers to all aspects of managing and processing information
using computers and computer networks.
Web site designer
An individual who is
responsible for the
appearance of a
An individual who
overview plan of a
They often manage Web site
designers and Web application developers to design, develop, document and maintain an
organization's Web presence.
Web site analyst
An individual who
analyzes Web site
determine the site's
an analyst may be asked to make technical changes to the site
may include modifying HTML, updating server-side scripts to eliminate errors, and finetuning
A hyperlink that,
when clicked, sends
a Web site visitor to
a page or resource
that does not exist
on the server.
Web site manager
An individual who
manages a Web
A Web site manager in a small company could perform all the Web development job
roles discussed previously.
An individual who is
responsible for the
security of an
Individuals who plan the logical and physical database
structure. Database designers also analyze a company's
business requirements to make sure that the database fulfills these requirements.
Specialists who build the physical architecture to create
scalable database solutions. Database engineers make sure that different database
servers can communicate with each other properly. They also know how to
"distribute" databases, which means that multiple databases can act as one. These
individuals also make sure that data is copied from one database to another properly,
a process called replication.
The ability for a
system to function
well when its
hardware is added
to meet user need.
Individuals who study the data carefully. They also provide
analysis data to enhance database performance and ensure that the company
databases are fulfilling business goals.
Database security engineers
Individuals tasked with ensuring that databases are
being accessed only by properly authenticated users. Also includes those who
understand how to recover data in case of a man-made or natural disaster.
Business intelligence analysts
Individuals who are experts at mining databases
for information, then creating functional specification documents based on this data
to help a business create solutions for its customers. These individuals manage data
An individual who
servers. are responsible for designing, implementing, managing and
maintaining network servers, and associated applications and peripheral devices.
Web server administrators
responsible for servers that act as gateways between the organization and the Internet.
are responsible for network servers upon which e-mail
clients and groupware (software that enables groups of people in a local area network
[LAN] to organize their activities) are located. E-mail/groupware administrators install
and maintain e-mail clients, develop and maintain security procedures to protect the
integrity of electronic data transfers, and analyze and recommend improvements for
e-mail utilization, capacity and performance
An individual who
used to protect
are responsible for managing the security measures used to protect
An individual who
The process of
volume and quality
of traffic to a Web
site by structuring
content to improve
ranking. A specific
activity of Internet
An individual who
visibility of Web sites
clients and search
An individual who
implements plans to
exploit the Internet
for marketing and
Publishing of articles in a timely manner, Ensuring that content is relevant, Enforcing quality control, including proper tone, grammar and spelling, Maintaining the blogging site or account, Coordinating writers to ensure that entries are made consistently, Archiving and organizing blog, audio and video entries so that content can be searched and retrieved for later use, Managing talent, because many bloggers feel a sense of celebrity and think they need not keep to a schedule. A blog manager should understand how to work with these
types of personalities
PC repair technician
An individual who installs, modifies and repairs personal computer (PC) hardware components.
help desk technician
An individual who diagnoses and resolves users' technical hardware and software problems.
is a group of two or more computers connected so they can communicate, share
resources and exchange information with one another
any entity on a network that can be managed such as a system, reperter, router, gateway, switch or firewall. A computer or other addressable device attached to a network: a host.
in which individual computers and devices, called nodes, interact with one another through a central server
to which they are all connected. It divides processing and storage tasks between the client and the server. The server is more powerful than the individual
computers, or clients, connected to it. The server is responsible for storing and presenting
information. Email is an example of client server model.
an individual computer connected to a network. Also a system or application (such as a web browser or user agent) that request a service from another computer (the server) and is used to access files or documents.
a computer in a network that manages the network resources and provides or serves, information to clients
LAN (local area network)
a group of computers connected within the confined geographic area. A LAN can be as few as 2 computers or up to hundreds of computers and various types of servers. They can extend several hundred yards or several miles. Gernerally they are a building or a few.
a group of computers connected over an expansive geographic area so thier users can share files and services.Generally a LAN becomes a WAN when two or more LANs are connected via public carriers
The Internet was formed in
The Internet was formed in 1969 when the U.S. Department of Defense's Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA) funded what would become the first global computer
network, the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). The ARPANET
allowed university and government engineers to research and work from any location on
the network. ARPANET's design featured multiple servers, or hosts, and multiple
connections — in the form of telephone lines — among those servers. If one part of the
network became incapacitated, other parts would remain functional, thereby reducing
the chances of total network failure.
the highest level in the computer network hiearchy to which smaller networks typically connect
National Science Foundation(NSF)
An independent agency of the US govt that promotes the advancedment of science and engineering.
In the late 1980s, the Department of Defense decommissioned the ARPANET, and all sites
switched over to the National Science Foundation (NSF) network, called NSFnet. The
NSF added access to more networks, expanding the range of sites to businesses,
universities, and government and military installations. The connections among
ARPANET, NSFnet and the other networks became what is now known as the Internet. They did not permit users to coduct private business
World Wide Web (WWW)
A set of software programs that enables users to access resources on the Internet via hypertext documents. It was created in 1989 at the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.
Highlighted or underlined text in a Web page that, when clicked, links the user to another location or Web page.
An HTML document containing one or more elements (text, images, hyperlinks) that can be linked to or from other HTML pages.
a collection of related web pages. Web sites are located on web servers, which are host computers on the internet.
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
A suite of protocols that turns data into blocks of information called packets, which are then sent across the Internet. The standard protocol used by the Internet. Every computer connected to the internet uses this protocal suite.
A device that routes packets between networks based on network-layer addresses; determines the best path across a network. Also used to connect seperate LANs to form a WAN's
Six elements are required to connect to the Internet
Computer, Operating system, TCP/IP, Client software, Internet connection, Internet address
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
An organization that maintains a gateway to the Internet and rents access to customers on a per-use or subscription basis.
Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator. An analog device that enables computers to communicate over telephone lines by translating digital data into audio/analog signals (on the sending computer) and then
back into digital form (on the receiving computer).
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
A communication standard for sending voice, video or data over digital telephone lines.
The amount of information, sometimes called traffic, that can be carried on a network at one time. The total capacity of a line. Also, the rate of data transfer over a network connection; measured in bits per second.
network interface card (NIC)
A circuit board within a computer's central processing
unit that serves as the interface enabling the computer to
connect to a network.
Internet Protocol (IP)
the protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet.
A base-16 number system that allows large numbers to be displayed by fewer characters than if the number were displayed in the regular base-10 system. In hexadecimal, the number 10 is represented as the letter A, 15 is represented as F, and 16 is represented as 10.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol for transporting HTML documents across the Internet.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
An Internet protocol used to transfer files between computers; allows file transfer without corruption or alteration.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
The Internet standard protocol for transferring e-mail messages from one computer to another.
Post Office Protocol (POP)
A protocol that resides on an incoming mail server. The current version is POP3.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
A protocol that resides on an incoming mail server. Similar to POP, but is more powerful. Allows sharing of mailboxes and multiple mail server access. The current version is IMAP4.
Usenet (User Network)
A collection ofthousands of Internet computers, newsgroups and newsgroup members using Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to exchange information.
On Usenet, asubject or other topical interest group whose members exchange ideas and opinions. Participants post and receive messages via a news server.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
The Internet protocol used by news servers that enables the exchange of newsgroup (Usenet) articles.
Domain Name System (DNS)
A system that maps uniquely hierarchical names to specific Internet addresses.
A computer that other computers can use to gain information. In network architecture, a host is a client or workstation.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
The complete domain name of an Internet computer, such as www.CIWcertified.com.
The group into which a domain is categorized, by common topic (company, educational institution) and/or geography (country, state).
A hosting service that allows a company to host its domain name on a third-party ISP server.
A hosting service that allows multiple entities to share portions of the same domain name.
A computing paradigm in which users are able to access software and services over the Internet instead of from their desktops.
A problem-solving model in which a task ordinarily performed by one person is outsourced to a large group or community in order to obtain and
The part of the browser responsible for reading the Web page and presenting it to an end user. Has the ability to read, parse and represent HTML, XHTML, XML, images and other tools. Also called the layout engine. Examples include Mozilla's Gecko, Opera Software's Presto andthe KDE project's KHTML engine, which is used in Linux systems as well as Apple's Safari Web browser.
A programming method that isolates a particular application or process. A sandbox is vital in secure Web browsing because it helps the browser keep information from being exposed or misused. Sandboxing also helps ensure a stable browser; if one sandboxed process or plug-in malfunctions, the browser can still function properly, rather than experience a crash that results in loss of data.
An instruction from a running application that executes a particular task. When a single-threaded application starts a thread, that application must wait until that thread is finished working. Most Web browsers have traditionally been single-threaded, which can lead to slow performance or browser crashes if a particular thread experiences a problem. Newer browsers engage in a practice called asynchronous threading, which allows a browser to more easily recover from an error in an interpreter or browser supplement.
A page rendered inside a browser window. Usually, one frame is rendered inside of a window. However, you can use the <frameset> tag to create multiple frames. In the past, some Web browsers have contained improper coding that allowed an attacker to essentially hide one frame inside of another, using the hidden second frame to capture information a user enters, such as authentication information. This is called a crossframe
bug, and the problem reappears from time to time in newer Web browsers.
Web page cookies and related data stored locally on the hard drive, unless the browser's privacy mode has been invoked.
Often called plug-ins, add-ons or helper applications. Includes Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, and Firefox add-ons.
Applications and certificate stores that enable encryption in the Web browser. Most Web browsers support various versions of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS). SSL version 3.0 and TLS version 1.0 have become standard.
Code that controls how the browser accesses a network. Web browsers usually default to allowing a direct connection to the Internet. However, you can specify proxy server settings that help your browser communicate with proxy-oriented corporate firewalls.
An application that adds extra capabilities to your Web browser, such as the ability to view movies, run Java applets or see Flash animations. Plug-ins are easy to install and integrate seamlessly into the main HTML file that you are viewing in your browser window. You will learn more about plug-ins in the next lesson.
A text file that contains information sent between a server and a client to help maintain state and track user
activities. Cookies can reside in memory or on a hard drive.
"middlemen" between their corporate networks
and the Internet. In a network setting, a proxy server replaces the network IP address with another,
contingent address. This process effectively hides the actual IP address from the rest of
the Internet, thereby protecting the entire network.
A network that connects enterprise intranets to the global Internet. Designed to provide access to selected external users.
An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that is fully cross-platform functional.
Small programs written in Java, which are downloaded as needed and executed within a Web page or browser.
The characteristic of some hardware and software, such as computers, games and multimedia systems, that allows them to respond differently based on a user's actions.
is an object-oriented programming language. developed by Sun Microsystems, can create stand-alone applications and Java applets.
C# (pronounced "C sharp")
is Microsoft's object-oriented programming language; it is Microsoft's answer to Java. Microsoft's .NET platform is designed to explicitly support C#, making the language very popular.
An open set of technologies for integrating components on the Internet and within Microsoft applications. ActiveX is a strategic initiative that incorporates object oriented programming tools and technologies. ActiveX is Microsoft's response to Java
Visual Basic Script (VBScript)
Scripting language from Microsoft derived from Visual Basic; used to manipulate ActiveX scripts.
The Microsoft graphical user interface (GUI) programming language used for developing Windows applications. A modified version of the BASIC programming language.
An element on a Web page that contains data and procedures for how that item will react when activated. On a Web page, an object is typically a multimedia presentation.
object-oriented programming (OOP)
Programming concept based on objects and data and how they relate to one another, instead of logic and actions; C++ and Java are OOP languages.
A program installed in the browser to extend its basic functionality. Allows different file formats to be viewed as part of a standard HTML document.
A continuous flow of data, usually audio or video files, that assists with the uninterrupted delivery of those files
into a browser.
A type of data file compression in which all original data can be recovered when the file is decompressed.
A type of data file compression in which some file information is permanently eliminated.
Resizable images that are saved as a sequence of vector statements, which describes a series of points to be connected.
Portable Document Format (PDF)
A file format that can be transferred across platforms and retain its formatting; designated by the file name extension .pdf.
the standard format for QuickTime movies, and the Macintosh native movie platform. You can use Sparkle or MoviePlayer to view them on a Macintosh computer,
or QuickTime for Windows.
A collection of information in a database table consisting of one or more related fields about a specific entity, such as a person, product or event.
A field contained in two or more database tables that forms a connection between the tables.
A connection between two or more database tables that is based on a field that the tables have in common.
A field in a related database table that refers to the primary key in the primary table.
In databases, a relationship in which each record in Table A can have only one matching record in Table B, and vice versa.
In databases, a relationship in which a record in Table A can have multiple matching records in Table B, but a
record in Table B has only one matching record in Table A.
In databases, a relationship in which one record in Table A can relate to many matching records in Table B,
and vice versa.
A database table containing foreignkey fields that refer to the primary-key fields from the primary tables in a many-to-many relationship.
A question posed by a user to a database to request database information. The database returns the query results based on the criteria supplied by the user in the query.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
A language used to create and maintain professional, high performance corporate databases.
database management system (DBMS)
A program used to store, access and manipulate database information.
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
ODBC was designed to enable an operating system to access databases from various vendors (for example, Oracle, Microsoft and IBM). Using ODBC, a
server (Web server) can access any type of database. ODBC provides a standard database interface.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
which is similar to ODBC except that JDBC uses the Java language and thus is capable of running on any
Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
A program that processes data submitted by the user. Allows a Web server to pass control to a software application, based on user request. The application receives and organizes data, then returns it in a consistent format.
A powerful software program that searches Internet databases for userspecified information.
A word that appears on a Web page and is used by search engines to identify relevant URLs. Some words, such as "the" or "and," are too common to be used as keywords.
A symbol or word used in Internet searches to narrow search results by including or excluding certain words or phrases from the search criteria. "AND, OR, NOT"
enable you to organize the information you find and store it on your local hard drive.
Mail Delivery Agent (MDA)
An e-mail server program that receives sent messages and delivers them to their proper destination mailbox.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
A protocol that enables operating systems to map file name extensions to corresponding applications. Also used by applications to automatically process files downloaded from
A block of information attached to a piece of data. The first part of a network packet. Can contain network addressing information or additional information that helps computers and applications process data.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
A method of encrypting and decrypting e-mail messages. It can also be used to encrypt a digital signature.
Secure Shell (SSH)
A protocol and command interface that provides secure access to a remote computer.
also called public-key encryption, uses two keys to encrypt and decrypt messages across ssh connection between client and server.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
a TCP/IP suite protocol that allows the transfer of files
between two computers, or one server and one computer.