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APUSH UNIT 3 Terms
Terms in this set (38)
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Compromise over the issue of slavery in Missouri: Missouri would enter as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state. All states north of 36°30' were free states and all South were slave states.
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams won after Henry Clay gave his support to Adams, securing his presidency. After Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state, Jackson accused them of having a "corrupt bargain" that cheated Jackson of presidency.
Dartmouth College (1819)
Case in which the Supreme Court prevented New Hampshire from changing Dartmouth's charter to make it a public institution; the Court held that the contract clause of the Constitution extended to charters and that contracts could not be invalidated by state law. The case was one of a series of Court decisions that limited states' power and promoted business interests/corporations.
After the 1824 election, Republican party split into two new parties and the National Republicans led by John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster opposed Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures such as the recharter of the Bank of the US, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by North westerners. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness. Eventually became known as Whigs in 1830's and changed their name to Republicans in 1854.
The league of European nations formed by Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna, Coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the request of Alexander I of Russia, signed in Vienna on September 26, 1815. Was to instill the Christian values of charity and peace in European political life. Monarchs used this to prevent revolutionary influence (French Revolution) from entering these nations. It was against democracy, revolution, and secularism.
Marbury vs Madison (1803)
A section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 declared unconstitutional; set a precedent for the doctrine of judicial review.
Fletcher vs Peck
Georgia's sale of 35 million acres of land was repealed after public protests about its illegitimacy. Marshall ruled the original transaction binding because state governments had no right to "impair," or interfere with, transactions. Example of federal law surpassing state law and set the precedent that courts had the power to declare state laws unconstitutional.
The Venerated Plow
Economic plan consisting of low industry and dense agriculture; the thing that would hold a new country together would be its ability to survive economically. Industry will be minimal but agriculture was and is still the backbone to the nations survival. Those who tilled the fields worked long and hard to supply all grains etc for the wider populous. To venerate is to respect and to "venerate the plough" is to respect those who work and cultivate the land and give us our daily bread.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Statement delivered by President James Monroe (written by JQA), warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets.
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
Judiciary Acts of 1789 and 1801
A legislation passed by congress that created the federal court system.
McCulloch vs Maryland (1819)
Seen as John Marshall's most important decision; Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments; in deciding this case, Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to enumerated powers found in the Constitution; favored national interests over state interests.
Gibbons vs Ogden (1823)
The Supreme court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. The courts broad interpretation of the Constitutions commerce clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers. Led to Commerce Clause.
An economic doctrine created by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
American Colonization Society (1817)
A society that worked to challenge slavery without confronting property rights/southern sensibilities; proposed gradual manumission (masters would receive compensation), slaves would be transported abroad.
Samuel L. Slater
Samuel Slater (1768-1835) was an early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" (a phrase coined by Andrew Jackson), the "Father of the American Factory System" and "Slater the Traitor" because he brought British textile technology to America.
Francis Cabot Lowell
Boston merchant who had an idea to combine spinning and weaving under one roof. He formed the Boston Associates. They built a textile mill in Massachusetts. Had all machines needed to turn raw cotton into cloth. He hired young women to live and work in his mill.
1825 - the Erie Canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The Canal was approved in 1817 with the support of New York Governor Dewitt Clinton. Along with Cumberland Road it helped connect the West and the North.
This system of manufacturing predated the factory system. In it, local artisans produced goods to supply local needs. Central shops supplied materials to houses and small shops on a piecework basis, then marketed the finished goods to the regional market. When Samuel Slater and Francis Cabot Lowell introduced the factory system to the Untied States, this system of manufacturing became increasingly obsolete.
By the Civil War, cotton constituted nearly 2/3 of the total export trade of the US; showed growing dominance of cotton in southern economy as a vital commodity.
American inventor whose cotton gin changed cotton harvesting procedures and enabled large increases in cotton production. He introduced the technology of mass production through the development of interchangeable parts in gun-making. His invention reinforced the importance of slavery to the southern economy.
Old National Road
This was a federally funded road project that ran from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, Virginia. It was constructed between 1811 and 1818. It eventually would be extended to Vandalia, Illinois. However, further road building was hampered in Congress over disagreements about the role of the Federal Government in internal improvements.
A group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With pride the Boston Associates considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."
Machine invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 that removed seeds from cotton fibers, making cotton production quick and cheap. Resulted in increased demand of cotton => increased demand for slaves.
Alexis de Tocqueville
A French liberal politician who observed the evolution of American political thought, customs, and social interaction in the 1830's. His book "Democracy in America" is still considered one the most accurate primary sources on American culture.
Tariff of Abominations (1828)
1828 - also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. The goal of the tariff was to protect industry in the northern United States from having to compete with European goods by increasing the prices of European products because imported goods were much cheaper than the ones that were made in the U.S.
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest
a pamphlet secretly written by John C. Calhoun; boldly denounced the recent tariff as unjust and unconstitutional; went beyond the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions by explicitly proposing that the states should nullify the tariffs; the disruptive theory of nullification was further publicized and the even more dangerous doctrine of secession was foreshawdowed
Ordinance of Nullification
South Carolina declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void and forbade the collection of those duties. In February, 1833, they threatened secession if federal bureaucrats tried to collect them. In 1828, Congress passed a tariff that southerners called the "Tariff of Abominations." The tariff, which was seen as a way to protect northern industries at the expense of the southern states was viewed by South Carolina as unconstitutional. Congress lowered the tariff to appease the south, but that was not enough for most southerners. The South Carolina legislature passed a series of laws nullifying the tariff and forbidding the collection of the tariff in South Carolina by force if necessary. In addition, South Carolina also threatened to secede for the Union if the issue was not resolved. Even though President Jackson felt the south had a grievance he introduced a bill into the Senate that would give him the power to use force to execute the law. Henry Clay proposed a compromise that was passed in 1833, which rescinded the ordinance nullification.
Worcester vs Georgia
1832 - John Marshall ruled the Indian Removal Act as unconstitutional and the court banned Georgia's extension of state law into Cherokee land. Jackson ignored the decision: failure of checks and balances.
Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States (Nicholas Biddle) over the bank's renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers.
Second Party System
The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The major parties were the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party (anti-Jackson), assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina to the Indian Territory (800 miles). More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food.
A movement for democracy in American government that was led by Andrew Jackson during his presidency, this movement campaigned greater rights for the "common man" and was opposed to any signs of aristocracy in the nation. It was aided by the strong spirit of equality among the people of the newer settlements in the South/West. It was also aided by the extension of the vote in eastern states to men without property. It was also attributed to the spoils system, strict constructionism and laissez-faire economics.
Election of 1828
Election where Republican party which was now unopposed split into two new parties known as the National Republicans and Democratic Republicans.
Debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
Maysville Road veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
As President of the Second Bank of the United States, this man occupied a position of power and responsibility that propelled him to the forefront of Jacksonian politics in the 1830s. He, along with others who regarded the bank as a necessity, realized the threat posed by the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828. Jackson was bitterly opposed to the national bank, believing that it was an unconstitutional, elitist institution that bred inequalities among the people. A bitterly divisive issue, the rechartering of the bank dominated political discussion for most of the 1830s, and for many, this man became a symbol of all for which the bank stood. After Jackson's reelection, the Second Bank of the United States was doomed.
Issued by President Jackson in 1836; it was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
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