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Elements that differ in the number of neutrons
Have no change in chemical behavior
H1 H2 H3
Elements break down to become the more stable isotope during this decay they release radiation
Na, ca, mg,cl, po43 and hco3-
Bodies most essential electrolytes
Needed for muscle and nerve function
Unpaired # of electrons
Oxygen with an extra electron
Caused by metabolic reactions
Radiation and chemicals
Causes tissue damage
Triggers chain reactions
Attraction between one substance and itself
Water due to hydrogen bonds
Reason for surface tension
Liquids when particles are suspended in solution. Gell state. Gelatin. Liquid to gel state. Cloudy. Milk protein
The suspended material will eventually separate out.
Blood when left to sit. The red blood cells will separate from plasma
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
a substance in foods such as rich, bread, and potatoes that provides your body with heat and energy
Law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
---OH sugars ,alcohols
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
-SH; found in some amino acids; forms disulfide bridges in proteins
Keeps the shape of the protein
Polar and hydrphobic, An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis., sucrose, lactose, maltose
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Lipids that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
85% naturally produced by body
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the polar of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
Distraction of a p, when an enzyme changes shape and no longer functions due to high temperatures or wrong pH
Has 4polypeptide chains . iron-containing ring called Heme protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
energy source in protein synthesis
May donate a phosphate group p1 to another molecule , A nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose, and three linked phosphate groups. It is incorporated into the growing RNA chain during synthesis of RNA and used as a source of energy during synthesis of proteins
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