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114 terms

Anatomy and Physiology the unity of form and function 5th edition chapter 2 the chemistry of life

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Element
The simplest form of matter w unique chemical properties.
Atomic number
Protons in it's nucleus
Periodic table
Letter symbols of elements arranged by atomic number
98.5% of body weIght consists of
C,h,o,n,ca,p
Element
Pure substance
Not changed in normal chemical reactions
Gold carbon oxygen and iron
Atom
Smallest unit of element
Compound
Two or more elements joined in definite proportions
Molecule
Smaller unit of a compound
Atomic mass
Total number protons and neutrons
Atoms have neutral charge
# of protons = # of neutrons
Isotopes
Elements that differ in the number of neutrons
Have no change in chemical behavior
H1 H2 H3
Atomic weight
average atomic mass of the mixture of isopes of an element found in a sample
Radioactivity
Elements break down to become the more stable isotope during this decay they release radiation
Molecule
Formed when two or more share an electron
Written using a molecular formula
Physical half life
Time for atoms to decay
Biological half life
Time for it to disappear
Ionization
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another to increase stability of valence shells
Na, ca, mg,cl, po43 and hco3-
Bodies most essential electrolytes
Needed for muscle and nerve function
Free radicals
Unpaired # of electrons
Oxygen with an extra electron
Caused by metabolic reactions
Radiation and chemicals
Causes tissue damage
Triggers chain reactions
Antioxidants
Neutralize free radicals
Structural formula
Shows arrangement of atoms
Molecular formula
Itemizes each element present and it's quantity
Isomer
Molecular formula is identical but structures and chemical properties are different
Non-polar covalent bonds
Share electrons equally
Polar covalent bonds
Share electrons unequally
Hydrophilic
Water loving. Dissolves in water
Hydrophobic
Water fearing, does not dissolve in water
Hydration sphere
Water molecules overpower the ionic bond between Na+Cl-
Adhesion
Attraction between one substance and another substance
Cohesion
Attraction between one substance and itself
Water due to hydrogen bonds
Reason for surface tension
Heat capacity
Amount of heat to raise the temperature of a substance
Calorie
Amount of heat to raise the temperature
Solutions
a mixture where substances are distributed evenly. Has a solvent & solute
Colloids
Liquids when particles are suspended in solution. Gell state. Gelatin. Liquid to gel state. Cloudy. Milk protein
Suspensions
Temporary mixture
The suspended material will eventually separate out.
Blood when left to sit. The red blood cells will separate from plasma
Percentage
Volume of solute to volume of solution
Molar
designating a solution containing 1 mole of solute per 1000 grams of solvent
Molarity
the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
Acid
Proton lender. More hydrogen atoms
Base
Proton acceptors,
Buffers
Neutralize ph
Energy
The capacity to do work
Kinetic energy
Energy of motion
Potential energy
Inherent energy due to an objects position
Or internal state
Chemical energy
Potential energy stored in the molecular bonds
Decomposition reactions
a large molecule breaks down into two or more smaller ones
Synthesis reaction
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
Exchange reactions
Two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms AB+CD - ABCD - AC+BD
Ph
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
Catalysts
Substances that reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction.
Anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials
Catabolism
breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy
Metabolism
all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Oxidation
loss of electrons
Reduction
Gain of electrons
Carbohydrate
a substance in foods such as rich, bread, and potatoes that provides your body with heat and energy
Lipids
nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water
Carbon bonds readily with
H O N Su
Ampiphilic
Ie: phospholipids, has both lipophilic and hydrophilic parts
Dehydration synthesis
process where water is removed to put 2 smaller molecules together
Hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Law of conservation of energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Exergonic
chemical reaction that releases some form of energy, such as light or heat.
Endergonic
chemical reaction requiring free energy in addition to enzymes and activation energy
Activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
Carbon atomic #
6 4 unpaired
Uses covalent bonds
Hydroxyl group
---OH sugars ,alcohols
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Sulfhydryl
-SH; found in some amino acids; forms disulfide bridges in proteins
Keeps the shape of the protein
Carbonyl
-- COOH
Ketones, C=O
Polar and hydrophobic
Aldehyde
Polar and hydrphobic, An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
1:2:1 ratio
Carbohydrate
C6 h12 o 6
Sugars ,starches, glycogen, cellulose
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
Simplest carbohydrates
Glucose, galactose,fructose
Disaccharides
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis., sucrose, lactose, maltose
Methyl
-CH₃
Fats oils steroids
Amino
Amino acids
Proteins, -NH2
Phosphate
H2PO₄³⁻
Nucleic acid ATP
Phospholipids
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Eicosanoids
Lipids that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.
Steroids
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
85% naturally produced by body
Fat soluble vitamins
A D E K
# of amino acids
20
R group
Attached to central carbon which determines chemical properties
Amino acids
Building , building blocks of proteins
Peptide bonds
Link amino acids together
Polymer
large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
Dipeptide
Have 2 amino acids, two amino acids joined together
Oligopeptide
A peptide with a chain of fewer than 10-15 amino acids.
PolypeptIde
a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
Protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
Synthesis that creates a peptide bond that joins amino acids
Dehydration
Primary structure
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
Secondary structure
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
Tertiary structure
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the polar of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
Quaternary structure
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
Denaturation
Distraction of a p, when an enzyme changes shape and no longer functions due to high temperatures or wrong pH
Primary structure of Insulin
Composed of two polypeptide chains joined by disulfide bridges
HemogloBin
Has 4polypeptide chains . iron-containing ring called Heme protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
Protein structural functions
Building materials
Collagen, keratin
Catalytic
Enzymes relating to or causing or involving catalysis
Regulatory proteins
Hormones, cell receptors
Transport proteins
Carriers
Immunological proteins
Antibodies
Contractile
Machinery for muscle contraction
Substrate
specific reactant acted on by an enzyme
Enzymes
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions. Reduce activation energy
Cofactors
a non protein substance that helps an enzyme catalyze a metabolic reaction
Coenzyme
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions
Nucleotides
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
ATP
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
Atpases
enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and P
Kinases
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to acceptor molecules.
GTP
energy source in protein synthesis
May donate a phosphate group p1 to another molecule , A nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose, and three linked phosphate groups. It is incorporated into the growing RNA chain during synthesis of RNA and used as a source of energy during synthesis of proteins
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
(cAMP) A nucleotide formed by the removal of both the second and third phosphate groups from ATP.