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PMI-ACP Exam Hot Topics
Terms in this set (183)
List the four values outlined in the Agile Manifesto
1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
2. Working software over comprehensive documentation
3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
4. Responding to change over following a plan
List the first six principles outlined in the Agile Manifesto
1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software
2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage
3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale
4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project
5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support their need, and trust them to get the job done
6. the most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is a face-to-face conversation.
List the final six principles outlined in the Agile Manifesto
7. Working software is the primary measure of progress
8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
10. Simplicity - the art of maximizing the amount of work not done - is essential
11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams
12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more efficient, then tunes and adjusts behavior accordingly.
List five common agile methodologies and two related methods
* Extreme Programming (XP)
* Feature-Driven Development (FDD)
* Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
* The Crystal family of methods
* Lean software development
* Kanban development
What are the three pillars of Scrum?
What are the three roles of the participants on a Scrum team?
The development team
The product owner
On a Scrum team, what is the development team responsible for?
* Building the project
* Managing their own work
Consists of people who can fulfill all the roles needed to complete the work
On a Scrum team, what is the product owner responsible for?
* Maximizing the value of the product
* Managing the product backlog
On a Scrum team, what is the ScrumMaster responsible for?
* Ensuring Scrum is understood and used
* Plays a servant leader role
* Helps product owner manager backlog
* Communicates vision to the development team
List the four planned opportunities for Inspection and Adaptation within the Scrum framework
* Sprint planning meetings
* Daily scrum meetings
* Sprint review meetings
* Sprint retrospectives
List five events that occur in the Scrum framework
* Sprint planning meetings
* Daily scrums
* Sprint review meetings
* Sprint retrospectives
List two Scrum artifacts
What tells us when we are done building the artifacts?
* Product backlog
* Sprint backlog
A shared definition of "done"
What differentiates Extreme Programming (XP) from other agile methodologies?
The XP methodology focuses on software development best practices
What are the five core values of XP?
What are the thirteen core practices of XP?
* Whole Team
* Planning games
* Small releases
What is the "whole team" practice of XP?
The idea that all the contributors to an XP project sit together in the same location, as the members of a single team
Describe a release, as used in XP
A push of new functionality all the way to the production user
What are iterations, as used in XP?
Short (usually two-week) iterative development cycles, during which developers work in pairs to write code
What are user stories, as defined in XP?
Lightweight requirements that are used in planning releases and iterations
What are architectural spikes, as used in XP?
Iterations that are used to prove a technological approach
What are spikes, as used in XP?
Periods of work undertaken to try approaches and/or reduce risks
What differentiates lean software development from other agile methodologies?
This methodology is based on a set of manufacturing principles that are closely aligned with agile values and have been applies to software development.
What differentiates Kanban development from other agile methodologies?
This methodology is derived from lean concepts; it relies on task boards to visualize the process, limit WIP, identify issues, and minimize waste
What is a basic guideline for tailoring agile processes?
Teams should use the agile practices "as is" for a few projects before removing elements or inventing new variations, especially if the team is new to agile.
Define return on investment (ROI)
The point at which we have received as much money as we have invested in a project, adjusted for today's value, to take into account inflation and the cost of borrowing money
Define net present value (NPV)
The total benefits (income minus costs) for a revenue stream adjusted for today's value
Define internal rate of return
The discount rate at which the project inflows (revenues) and project outflows (costs) are equal.
IRR uses duration and payback information to calculate a project's effective interest rate
What is the goal of an agile charter?
To describe the project at a high level, gain agreement about the project's W5H (What, Why, Who, When, Where, and How) attributes, and obtain the authority to proceed
How does an agile charter differ from the Develop Project Charter process outlined in the PMBOK Guide
In an agile charter:
* The scope is typically less clearly defined
* It is generally shorter and has less detail
* It usually focuses more on how the project will be run than on exactly what will be built
What is value stream mapping?
How is it useful?
A technique that illustrates the flow of information or materials required to complete a process.
It can help us identify the waste elements that could be removed to improve process efficiency
List the six steps involved in creating a value stream map
What is the formula for calculating the process cycle efficiency of a value stream?
Total value-added time
Total cycle time
In value stream mapping, how do we define "waste"?
Inefficient parts of the process that do not add value to the product or process an that we can remove to improve process efficiency.
Explain what is meant by "customer-valued prioritization."
Prioritizing work items based on the customer's view of what is most important, so we can then work on the items that yield the highest value to the customer as soon as possible.
List five prioritization schemes commonly used by agile approaches, other than simple prioritization.
* Kano analysis
* Requirements Prioritization Model
* Monopoly Money
* 100-Point Method
What does "relative prioritization/ranking" mean?
Listing the product features in order of their relative priority
Describe a product roadmap.
A visual overview of a product's releases and its main components
What do you see when you look down the columns of a story map?
What do you see when you look across the rows of a story map?
Down - the product's features and functionality prioritized as:
* Walking skeleton
* Additional features
Across - the functionality to be included in each release planned for the project.
What is a risk-adjusted backlog?
A list of the required features and risks, prioritized by business value (for the features) and expected monetary value (for the risks)
How do we calculate the expected monetary value (EMV) of a risk?
Risk impact (as a monetary amount) x Risk probability (as a percentage)
What is the goal of agile contracting methods?
Which Agile Manifesto value is related to agile contracting methods?
Closer cooperation between the project team and the vendor or customer to focus their efforts on delivering value-adding features.
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
List five common ways that an agile contract can be structured.
* DSDM contract
* Money for nothing and change for free
* Graduated fixed price contract
* Fixed price work packages
* Customized contracts
What are the two main disadvantages of using Gantt charts or sophisticated project tracking and scheduling software on an agile project?
* Data accuracy perception increases
* Barriers for stakeholder interaction are created
What are the benefits of using task boards or Kanban boards instead of Gantt charts?
* Easy for all stakeholders to manipulate
* Avoid tool-related data accuracy perception
* Allow more people to update the plans as needed
What does WIP stand for?
Explain what this term means.
"Work in progress" or "work in process"
Work that has been started but has not yet been competed
What problems are associated with excessive WIP levels?
* Consume investment capital without delivering return
* Hide bottlenecks that slow workflow or throughput
* Raise risk of potential rework
What is the goal of using WIP limits on an agile project?
What tool is commonly used to ensure that WIP limits are not exceeded?
To identify and remove bottlenecks to keep the process running efficiently; optimize throughput rather than resource utilization.
Kanban boards that restrict the amount of work int he system
Explain what is meant by "incremental delivery?"
Regular deployment of working increments of the product over the course of the project
What does the cost of change curve tell us?
The earlier an issue is found, the lower the cost of fixing it; the longer an issue is left unaddressed, the more expensive it will be to fix.
What are three ways to confirm with stakeholders whether the functionality being developed is suitable?
What are some of the benefits of these activities?
* Clarify requirements
* Uncover new features that are needed
What does IKIWISI stand for?
What is the gulf of evaluation?
I'll Know It When I See It
The difference between what was asked for and what was interpreted and built
Explain what earned value analysis means.
What is a key benefit of earned value management?
Combining spending and schedule data to produce a comprehensive set of project metrics that compare actual cost and schedule performance to planned performance.
It provides a leading indicator of project progress.
What is a cumulative flow diagram?
A stacked area graph of the features that are in progress, remaining, or completed over time.
Explain what a risk burn down graph is.
What does this graph tell us?
A stacked area graph of cumulative project risk severities
The status and trends of the severity of each risk and the cumulative project risk
Define "risk probability."
A measure of the likelihood of a given project risk, expressed as a percentage or a numerical ranking
Define "risk impact."
A measure of the consequences to the project if a given risk actually occurs, expressed in a monetary terms or as a numerical ranking
How is risk severity calculated?
The probability that the risk will occur, multiplied by its estimated financial impact on the project
Explain their purpose.
A model or mockup of the product used as a form of low-fidelity prototyping.
To get feedback from stakeholders and confirm that everyone has the same understanding of the product.
Explain their purpose.
Brief profiles of the key users (real or archetypal) of the system being built.
To help the team stay focused on the users' priorities, gain insight into who the users are, and empathize with their needs.
Define "user stories."
What is a common format of a user story?
Small, understandable chunks of product functionality
"As a <Role>, I want <Functionality>, so that <Business Benefit>."
What is a user story backlog?
List some of the ways in which it is used.
A prioritized list of user stories showing the work that remains to be done
* Guides discussions of the team's priorities
* Serves as a tool for planning releases and iterations
* Directs the team's focus during scope discussions and when managing changes
* Helps coordinate the project
* Keep the team working toward the agreed-upon mission
What is a requirement hierarchy?
What is a basic way to structure a requirements hierarchy?
A breakdown of increasingly refined requirements for the project, organized from large to small
Feature; user story; task
Explain what it means to incorporate stakeholder values into a project.
What are some ways to incorporate stakeholder values into a project's priorities and execution?
Making sure we only plan and initiate work that the stakeholders value
* Engage business representatives in prioritizing the backlog
* Execute the work in the order specified by stakeholders
* Invite stakeholders to retrospectives and planning meetings
List some of the activities involved in stakeholder management.
* Identify all the stakeholders
* Manage stakeholders' involvement in the project so that they remain supportive and engaged
* Educate stakeholders about agile methods
* Manage stakeholders' expectations
* Create a shared definition of "done"
What are some of the special considerations involved in working with vendors in an agile environment?
* Vendors that play a major role may need to be educated about agile methods.
* If familiarity with agile is a requirement for vendors, this should be specified in the RFP.
* Agile contracts should be used, such as fixed price work packages or graduated fixed price contracts
What is the preferred way to communicate on agile projects?
Explain some of the reasons why this method is preferred.
Face-to-face (F2F) communication
* Has the highest bandwidth of all forms of communication (it transfers the most information)
* Allows for immediate questions and answers
* Has the highest communication effectiveness and richness, or "temperature"
* Conveys nonverbal communication such as emotions, gestures, and facial expressions
Define the term "information radiator."
Highly visible charts, graphs, or data summaries placed in high-traffic areas to quickly convey information about the project to anyone who is interested in it
Define the term "burn down chart."
A line graph of the estimated effort remaining on the project, used to estimate when the project (or a given release) will be complete
Define the term "burn up chart."
A line graph of the user stories or features delivered on the project, used to estimate when the project (or a given release) will be complete
The measure of a team's capacity for work per iteration
What are the recommended characteristics of agile modeling?
What are some of the kinds of models that can be created?
Lightweight, barely sufficient
* Use case diagrams
* Data models
* Screen designs
List some of the ways agile models might be used.
* To clarify design
* To identify issues, risks, and elements that need to be tested
* To investigate problems and find solutions
When does negotiation occur on an agile project?
Give some examples of negotiation on an agile project.
Throughout the project
* Determining requirements
* Establishing priorities
* Defining what "done" will look like
* Discussing tradeoffs for change requests
* Using team-based estimation techniques, such as planning poker
What is active listening?
What are the three levels of listening, from low to high awareness?
Hearing what someone is really trying to convey, instead of just the words they are saying
1. Internal listening
2. Focused listening
3. Global listening
List some of the facilitation methods that can be used to run an effective meeting.
* Establish a clear goal for the meeting
* Establish basic ground rules for the meeting
* Establish the duration ahead of time, and designate someone as the timekeeper
* Keep the session flowing smoothly by drawing out the quieter participants and managing the dominant participants
Describe some of the challenges involved in working with a global, culturally diverse team.
* Communication challenges
* Cultural differences and misunderstandings
* Language barriers
Describe some ways to deal with the challenges of working with a global team.
* F2F kickoff meeting
* F2F release and planning meetings
* Rotating temporary assignments of team members between locations to learn the culture
* Awareness of an sensitivity tot he communication styles of other cultures when leading meetings and asking for feedback
What is the agile view of team conflict?
How should team conflicts be resolved?
It is an inevitable and healthy part of working together, when not taken to extremes.
Leader should allow team members to try to resolve their own conflicts and avoid becoming involved unless the conflict lingers or escalates.
What are Leas's five levels of conflict, in ascending order of severity?
1. Problem to solve
5. World War
Describe some of the challenges involved in working with a distributed team.
* Difficulty resolving conflicts (Storming phase)
* Lack of co-location and information radiators
* Lack of F2F and osmotic communication
Describe some ways to deal with the challenges raised by working with a distributed team.
* F2F kickoff meeting
* F2F release and planning meetings
* Rotating temporary assignments of team members between locations
* Videoconferencing, live chat, Skype, and other high-bandwidth communication methods to simulate a shared team environment
* Electronic task boards and story boards
What are participatory decision models?
List four of these methods.
Ways to engage the team in a collaborative decision-making process
* Simple voting
* Thumbs up/down/sideways
* Highsmith's decision spectrum
* Fist-of-five voting
Define "simple voting."
A decision-making method in which team members vote "for" or "against" an idea by a show of hands
Define the thumbs up/down/sideways technique.
What does raising a thumb sideways mean in this technique?
A decision-making method in which team members vote thumbs up, down, or sideways to show their opinion
The person is either neutral on the topic or has a concern that requires further discussion or investigation
Define the decision spectrum technique.
What does a decision spectrum look like?
A decision-making method in which each team member places a checkmark along a decision spectrum to show their opinion
A series of boxes along a continuum of agreement to disagreement, such as:
* In favor
* OK, but with reservations
* Mixed feelings
* Not in favor, but will commit
Define "fist-of-five voting."
A decision-making method in which each team member votes by showing the number of fingers that indicate their degree of support
1. The number of fingers shows the degree of support; all five fingers means "full agreement"
2. The number of fingers shows the degree of objection; all five fingers (actually a palm raised like a stop sign) means "stop, I am against this"
Explain the differences between management and leadership.
Which of these approaches is favored by agile leaders?
Management is concerned with the mechanics of tasks, control, and speed. Leadership focuses on people and purpose and emphasizes empowerment, effectiveness, and doing the right things.
Agile leaders use a combination of both approaches to amplify team productivity
Explain the meaning of the term "servant leadership."
A model in which the leader's role is to support the team members, based on the recognition that it is the team members who actually get the work done and achieve the business value.
List the four primary duties of a servant leader.
* Shield the team from interruptions
* Remove impediments to progress
* (Re)communicate the project vision
* Carry food and water (providing training, encouragement, and support)
List some ways that a leader can enable others to act
Foster a collaborative environment
Build trust among team members
Strengthen others by sharing power (for example, by using a task board that the entire team can update)
Create a safe environment in which people can ask what they may think are dumb questions
Which is more important to have on your team, good people or good tools and processes?
COCOMO II data shows that it is more than 10 times more important to use good people than to use good tools and processes
What is adaptive leadership?
Changing how we lead a team based on its stage of formation
List the stages of team formation in the usual sequence in which they occur.
* Adjourning or Mourning
Define "emotional intelligence."
Our ability to identify, assess, and influence the emotions of ourselves, other individuals, and groups
What are the two areas that define the vertical columns of the emotional intelligence matrix?
What are the two skills that define the horizontal rows of the emotional intelligence matrix?
What are the four quadrants of the emotional intelligence matrix?
* Social skills
* Social awareness
What are two characteristics of empowered teams?
What are the characteristics of a self-organizing team?
* Free from command-and-control management
* Choose the best way to do their jobs
* Use individual skills for managing complexity
* Use their expertise to select the tasks to work on
What are the characteristics of a self-directing team?
* Collectively create team norms
* Make their own local decisions
* Resolve issues that crop up during an iteration
What are key characteristics of an agile team?
* Small number of people
* Complementary skills
* Committed to a common purpose
* Common performance goals and approach
* Hold themselves mutually accountable
List the five guidelines for building high-performance teams.
* Create a shared vision for the team
* Set realistic goals
* Limit team size to 12 or fewer members
* Build a sense of team identity
* Provide strong leadership
Explain two key points about personal and team motivation on an agile project team.
* Align team members' personal motivations with the project goal to magnify the team's ability to successfully complete the project
* Promote team objectives over personal goals; reward the team rather than individuals to promote mutual accountability
Define "daily stand-up meetings"
Short, focused meetings that are timebound to 15 minutes or less, in which each member of the team answers just three questions
What are the questions asked at a daily stand-up meeting?
1. What have you worked on sicne the last meeting?
2. What do you plan to finish today?
3. Are there any roadblocks or impediments to your work?
What are four actions that set the groundwork for coaching and mentoring?
* Meet them a half-step ahead
* Guarantee safety
* Partner with managers
* Create positive regard
List the names of three brainstorming techniques
* Quiet writing
Define "quiet writing"
A brainstorming method in which team members start by generating a list of ideas on their own before sharing them
A brainstorming method in which everyone takes a turn suggesting an idea or building on another idea that has been raised
A brainstorming method in which people spontaneously shout out their ideas and build on each other's suggestions
What is dot voting (also called multi-voting)?
A prioritization method in which everyone gets a number of dots (or some other voting token) to distribute as they wish among the available options
Explain what is meant by "team space"
A team's shared work area for collaboration and information sharing, with whiteboards to use for discussions and information radiators of project metrics
Explain what is meant by a "co-located" team
A team in which all team members work at the same location in a common work area that has no barriers to the flow of information
What does "caves and common" refer to?
Providing an agile team access to an open, shared work space and access to private areas where people can work quietly or make private phone calls
Define "osmotic communication"
Useful information that flows among team members when they sit and work in close proximity to each other without barriers to communication
What is tacit knowledge?
Information that is not written down, but shared through collective knowledge and co-location
List six communication tools that can help a distributed team restore some of the benefits of face-to-face collaboration
* Web-based meeting facilitators
* Survey applications
* Instant messaging and VoIP headsets
* Presence-based applications
* Interactive whiteboards
Why do co-located agile teams prefer to use low-tech, high-touch tools?
* Support collaboration by reducing tool complexity
* Engage all team members in using the tools
* Reduce learning curve for the tools
* Promote clear communication
What are some of the digital tools that can be useful for a distributed team?
* Agile project management software
* Virtual card walls
* Smart boards
* Digital cameras
* Wikis, document management tools, and collaboration websites
* Automated testing and build tools; traffic-light-type signals
* CASE tools
What is a timebox?
Give two examples of timeboxed activities on an agile project, with the standard duration of their timeboxes.
A short, fixed duration of time in which a specific set of activities are done
* Daily stand-up meetings are timeboxed to 15 minutes
* Iterations are typically timeboxed to two to four weeks
List several examples of progressive elaboration on agile projects
* Risk assessments
* Requirements definitions
* Architectural designs
* Acceptance criteria
* Test scenarios
At the end of each iteration, what are the three questions the extended team asks to help identify problems and tailor project processes?
* What is going well?
* What areas could use improvement?
* What should we be doing differently?
Define "minimally marketable feature."
The minimum package of functionality that is complete enough to be useful to end users or the market, but smaller than the entire project
Define "value-based analysis"
The process of prioritizing work items at each project stage based on their business value
Define "value-based decomposition and prioritization
The process of eliciting requirements from stakeholders, breaking the requirements into smaller elements, ranking those elements, and incorporating them into the development process
List the names of five agile collaborative (innovation) games
* Remember the future
* Prune the product tree
* Buy a feature
Define "wideband Delphi"
What are three characteristics of wideband Delphi that make it well suited for agile projects?
A group-based estimation approach in which experts submit their estimates anonymously through a series of estimating rounds until the exit criteria are reached
Define "planning poker"
An estimation game in which participants simultaneously select cards that represent their estimate of the size of a user story; if there is a wide gap, they discuss the results and repeat until an acceptable consensus is reached.
Define "ideal time"
What are the benefits of using ideal time?
The period of working time it would take to complete a task if there where no interruptions, delays, dependencies, or diversions
Improves the accuracy of effort estimates and simplifies the estimation process by taking availability issues out of the equation
What are five points to keep in mind when estimating user stories?
* Teams should own the story point definition
* Story point estimates should be all-inclusive
* When disaggregating user stories, the story point totals don't need to match
* Sizes of user stories should be relative to their story points
* Complexity, work effort, and risk should all count
Define "affinity estimating"
The process of grouping user stories into related categories to check the accuracy of the estimates
How should estimates be stated?
What are some of the reasons for this?
As a range, narrower when we are more certain about the estimate and wider when we are less certain
* To manage stakeholder expectations
* To reflect the uncertainty of our projections
* To convey our level of confidence in the estimate
Explain the meaning of a) "burdened" and b) "unburdened" labor costs
Two ways of accounting for a project's labor costs for estimating and budgeting purposes, consisting of:
a) Salary expenses plus related costs, such as benefits, office space, computer equipment, etc.
b) Salary expenses alone
What are three ways that agile planning differs from traditional planning?
On agile projects:
1. Trial and demonstration uncover true requirements, which then require replanning.
2. Planning is less of an upfront effort, and instead is done throughout the project.
3. Midcourse adjustments are he norm.
What six questions are typically addressed in an agile charter?
* What is the project about?
* Why is it being undertaken?
* When will it start and end?
* Who will be engaged?
* Where will it occur?
* How will it be undertaken?
Outline the common format for an elevator statement
For: <Target customers>
Who: <Need (opportunity or problem)>
The: <Product/service name>
Is a: <Product category>
That: <Key benefits/reason to buy>
Unlike: <Primary competitive alternatives>
We: <Primary differentiation>
What eight sections would typically be included in a comprehensive business case for a large agile project?
* Project overview
* Anticipated costs
* Anticipated benefits
* Business models and indexes
* ROI assumptions and risks
* Risks of not undertaking the project
* SWOT/PEST analysis
Explain the two potential drives of product releases, giving an example of each
* Date-driven: "We need something to demo at the trade show"
* Functionality-driven: "We will go live as soon as we can capture and process orders; the other functionality can come later."
In planning a release, what is the key question we need to answer?
What proportion of the user story backlog can we deliver in this release?
In iteration planning, who selects the user stories to be worked on from the high-priority items?
Explain some of the reasons for this.
Supports team self-organization and empowerment
* Are closest to the technical details
* Have the expertise to know what needs to be done next
* May know about other tasks/issues that need to be completed (such as refactoring)
* Should take ownership of the tasks they commit to complete
Define "cycle time"
The timespan between when the team starts work on an item, such as a user story, and when that item is finished, accepted, and can start delivering business value
What is an escaped defect?
A defect that eludes discovery during the project's testing and validation process and isn't found until the product reaches the customer
Give several examples of the quality standards and practices that can be used by an agile project team.
* Measuring product quality by tests passed and customer acceptance
* Automating as many tests as possible
* Making sure testing occurs as part of every iteration
* Working closely with the quality control and assurance teams to make sure they understand the acceptance criteria for each feature
* Only classify defects as fixed when the business team, not the developers, say they are done
* Collaborating with testers of defects found, walking through the steps of recreating the defect
List the five failure modes identified by Alistair Cockburn
* Making mistakes
* Preferring to fail conservatively
* Inventing rather than researching
* Being creatures of habit
* Being inconsistent
Based on Alistair Cockburn's failure modes, what is one of the primary reasons for using iterative and incremental development?
To recognize the fact that people make mistakes and provide a mechanism to recover from them and quickly overcome their effects
Give some examples of this concept.
A measure of how far apart things are from each other, or how much they vary from each other
* The differences in estimates by various people of how long it will take to do a given task
* The differences between estimates and actual results
Define "common cause variation."
The random differences that occur when doing the same work repeatedly
Define "special cause variation."
The greater degree of variance due to special factors
Why is trend analysis important for an agile leader?
It provides information about potential future issues before they occur
What are lagging metrics?
Measurements that provide information about past events
What are leading metrics?
How are they useful in managing agile projects?
Measurements that provide information about the present or future (what is occurring now or may be just starting to happen)
They are of great value as an early indicator of potential problems, giving the team a chance to respond by adapting and replanning
Explain how the concept of control limits is applied on agile projects.
List reasons we might want to use control limits.
Agile projects use a fairly loose interpretation of this concept, using limits as tolerance levels and warning signs
* To diagnose issues before they occur
* To provide guidelines to operate within
Give a few examples of the use of control limits on agile projects.
* Limiting project teams to 12 or fewer people
* Using Kanban or task boards to limit WIP
* Using control limits to monitor velocity to ensure that work will be completed by the release date
Define "continuous integration."
Why is this practice important?
A software development process in which new and changed code is frequently integrated into the project code repository
It minimizes the problems caused by multiple people making incompatible changes to the same code base
Define "risk-based spike."
A short proof-of-concept activity that the team undertakes to investigate an issue or risk to the project
Explain what is meant by "fast failure"?
How can this result be advantageous?
Determining at an early stage that a project won't be viable, perhaps because a risk-based spike was unsuccessful in resolving a technological issue
The resources that were assigned to the project can be reallocated to other more promising ventures
Provide several examples of frequent validation and verification on agile projects.
* Pair programming
* Product demos
* Daily stand-up meetings
* Planning poker
* Control limits
* Timeboxed iterations
* TDD, TFD, and ATDD
* Progressive elaboration
* Participatory decision making
* Incremental delivery
* Continuous integration
Explain the philosophy behind TDD.
What behaviors are promoted by TDD and TFD?
The test should be written before the code is written
* Thinking about how the functionality will be used by the customer
* Making sure that at least some tests are in place
* Catching defects early in the development cycle when they are cheaper and easier to fix
* Writing systems in small, tested units, which leads to more modular, flexible, and extendable systems
Explain what is meant by "Red, Green, Refactor."
The process of writing a test that initially fails (Red), adding code until the test passes (Green), and then refactoring the code (Refactor)
Explain the approach of ATDD.
Instead of simply testing whether the code works, we test how the functionality requested by the business behaves at an acceptance test level
What are the three steps involved in team-based problem solving?
1. Gather data
2. Generate insights
3. Decide what to do
What is the "five whys" technique, and how is it used?
A team-based exercise used in the "Generate Insights" step of problem-solving, in which we ask "Why?" give times to get to the root cause of a problem
What is a fishbone diagram, and how is it used?
A visual tool used in the "Generate Insights" step of problem-solving, in which we write the problem at the head of a diagram that looks like a fish skeleton and lists the factors that contribute to the problem along the bones, organized into categories
What is a "retrospective"?
A meeting held after each iteration in which extended team members gather to review, reflect, and improve their processes and teamwork
List the five stages of a retrospective.
1. Set the stage
2. Gather data
3. Generate insights
4. Decide what to do
5. Close the retrospective
List four activities that are useful in the "Set the Stage" phase of a retrospective.
* Focus on/focus off
* Working agreements
List eight activities that are useful in the "Gather Data" phase of a retrospective.
* Triple nickels
* Color code dots
* Mad, sad, glad
* Locate strengths
* Satisfaction histogram
* Team radar
* Like to like
List five activities that are useful in the "Generate Insights" phase of a retrospective.
* Five whys
* Prioritize with dots
* Identify themes
List four activities that are useful in the "Decide What to Do" phase of a retrospective.
* Short subjects
* SMART goals
* Retrospective planning game
* Circle of questions
List four activities that are useful in the "Close the Retrospective" phase of a retrospective.
* Helped, hindered, hypothesis
* Return on time invested (ROTI)
List several examples of knowledge sharing on agile projects.
* Daily stand-up meetings
* Product demos
* Customer tests
* Continuous integration
* Pair programming
* Collective code ownership
* Test-driven development
* Team co-location
* Planning games
* Shared vision
What are key risk factors to watch out for in tailoring agile processes?
* Lack of first-hand experience with agile practices
* Complex interrelationships of agile practices
* Avoiding a practice because it is difficult or there is resistance to implementing it
What are two key ways to mitigate the risks of process tailoring?
1. Get used to normal, out-of-the-box agile methods before attempting to change them
2. Carefully examine the motivation to drop, amend, or append a practice
In terms of systems thinking, on what kind of project will agile approaches work best?
Projects that have medium levels of complexity and uncertainty for both their requirements and their technology
Define "process analysis."
The process of reviewing and diagnosing issues with agile methods, or more likely, our add-ons and replacements to agile methods
What are Alistair Cockburn's six anti-patterns to watch out for in analyzing agile processes?
* One size for all projects
* Used once
What are three success criteria to look for in analyzing agile processes?
* The project got shipped
* The leadership remained intact
* The people on the project would work the same way again
In process analysis, what are the seven principles that lead to successful agile methodologies?
1. Interactive, face-to-face communication is the cheapest and fastest channel for exchanging information.
2. Excess methodology weight is costly.
3. Larger teams need heavier methodologies.
4. Greater ceremony is appropriate for projects with greater criticality.
5. Increasing feedback and communication reduces the need for immediate deliverables.
6. Discipline, skills, and understanding counter process, formality, and documentation.
7. Efficiency is expendable in nonbottleneck activities.
When thinking about applying anew agile practice, what four points should you consider?
1. Is there a natural solution?
2. Investigate yourself.
3. Try small doses
4. Review the side effects.
To whom does PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct apply?
What are the four areas of professional behavior covered by PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct?
PMI members and nonmembers who apply for PMI certification.
What do the aspirational standards of PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct outline?
The ideals that PMI is asking practitioners to strive for or aspire to
What do the mandatory standards of PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct outline?
The behavior that PMI expects all practitioners to follow
Define "continuous improvement" in the context of an agile project.
The ongoing journey of enhancing our processes and product throughout the project
What is a "self-assessment" in the context of an agile project?
List an example of a tool that an agile team can use for self-assessment.
A standard practice in which the team reflects on how well they are doing and looks for ways to improve
Shore's self-assessment quiz and scoring model for XP practices
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)
PMI-ACP Exam Preparation
PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)
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