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Psychology 334 Chapter 9
Terms in this set (50)
As muscles adapt to an enlarging skeleton, children often experience
nighttime "growing pains"
Research on nutrition indicates that
insufficient dietary iron and folate are related to poorer concentration and mental test performance
A body mass index above the _______ percentile for a child's age and sex is considered overweight, a BMI above the ______ percentile obese.
______ disrupts the brain's regulation of hunger and metabolism
Which child is at the greatest risk for overweight?
Leo, who watches 2 hours of TV and Internet with ads in his bedroom each day
Obesity has caused a dramatic rise in cases of __________ in children.
By far, the most common chronic disease or condition of children in the United States is __________.
Paul is concerned because his 6-year-old son, Bobby, prints using large letters and numbers. Bobby's writing is large because he __________.
makes strokes with his entire arm rather than just the wrist and fingers
Gains in perspective taking permit the transition to __________.
Ten-year-old Nadia enjoys making up games and playing them with her friends. Playing these child-invented games allows Nadia to __________.
Try out different styles of cooperating and competing with little personal risk
For most children, joining community athletic teams is associated with _______.
increased social skills
Many experts believe that schools should not only offer more frequent physical education classes but also reduce the emphasis placed on ______ and instead emphasize _______.
competitive sports; informal games and individual excercise
During a conservation-of-water, 8-year-old Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, Emme is capable of _______.
When presented with Piaget's conservation tasks, 9-year-old Ramon demonstrates reversibility. This means that Ramon can ______.
think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction
Margerite passed Piaget's class inclusion problem. This indicates that Margerite can
focus on relations between a general and two specific categories at the same time
A concrete operational child can _______ mentally, and ability called ______
seriate; transitive inference
Which statement about the impact of culture and schooling on concrete operational thought is accurate?
evidence indicates that specific cultural and school practices have much to do with mastery of Piagetian tasks
Compared with Piaget's theory, neo-Piagetian approaches better account for ______
unevenness in cognitive development
The school years are a time _____
of continued development of the prefrontal cortex
Dr. Goldberg introduces irrelevant stimuli into a task and records how well children attend to its central elements. Dr. Goldberg is probably studying
selectivity of attention
Children who fail at school assignments that require following complex instructions and tasks with multiple steps often have limited __________.
Ten-year-old Cora has attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cora's __________ than her unaffected agemates.
brain is probably growing more slowly
In Enrique's fourth-grade class, the teacher asks the children to attend to their own breathing......
mindfulness; executive function
Which statement about culture, schooling, and memory strategies is accurate?
Societal modernization is broadly associated with performance on cognitive tasks typical in industrialized nations.
Nine-year-old Lela states, "Juana thinks that Barry thinks that his cell phone is under his pillow, but that's not really what Barry thinks; he knows his cell phone is in his dresser drawer." Lela is demonstrating __________.
Parents who patiently point out important features of a task and suggest strategies have children who __________.
more often monitor their own performance
Eight-year-old Miles has confidence in his own ability. When he faces a spelling test, he can practice spelling the words and that he will do well on the test. Miles has developed ________
Ms. Dockery believes that from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form—stories, poems, letters, posters, and lists. She feels that as long as reading is kept whole and meaningful, children will be motivated to discover the specific skills they need. Ms. Dockery supports the __________ approach to teaching beginning reading.
Many studies confirm that __________.
combining phonics with the whole-language approach is the best method for teaching beginning reading
With regard to teaching mathematics, most experts agree that __________.
a blend of drill in computing and "number sense" is most beneficial
In Sternberg's triarchic theory of successful intelligence, intelligent behavior involves balancing ____ intelligences.
analytical, creative, and practical
Gardner believes that
each intelligence has a unique neurological basis and a distinct course of development
According to Gardener's theory of multiple intelligences,
cultural values and learning opportunities affect the extent to which a child's intellectual strengths are realized
Which statement is supported by research on group differences in IQ?
heredity is largely responsible for individual, ethnic, and SES variations in intelligence
Psychologist Arthur Jensen claimed that
heredity is largely responsible for individual, ethnic, and SES variations in intelligence.
On the basis of twin studies and other kinship evidence, researchers estimate that about _______ of the differences in IQ among children can be traced to their genetic makup.
Adoption studies reveal that
children of low-IQ biological mothers adopted at birth by parents who are well above average in income and education score above average in IQ during the school years
Dr. Whittier believes that many IQ tests sample knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had the opportunity to learn. Dr. Whittiers belief reflects the controversial question that ethnic differences in IQ have to do with
Which statement is true about African-American English?
Many children learn to flexibly shift between African-American English and standard English by third grade.
Carter, an 8-year-old African-American boy, is told by a researcher that certain verbal tasks are "not a test." He is told that other verbal tasks are "a test of how good children are at school problems." If Carter is aware of ethnic stereotypes, he will probably __________.
perform far worse in the "test" condition
Professor Lively, consistent with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, introduces purposeful teaching into a testing situation to find out what children can attain with social support. Professor Lively uses __________.
Which statement regarding intelligence tests in schools is true?
Intelligence tests are useful when interpreted by psychologists and educators who are sensitive to cultural influences on test performance.
By second to third grade, __________ strongly predict(s) later vocabulary size into high school.
reading comprehension and reading habits
Which statement about language development during middle childhood is true?
Children's reflective, analytical approach to language permits them to appreciate the multiple meanings of words
Children of bilingual parents who teach them both languages in infancy and early childhood
separate the language systems early on and attain early language milestones according to a typical timetable
Which elementary classroom shows signs of high-quality education?
Classroom C, where teachers use written observations to individualize instruction
In Mr. Alvarado's classroom, small groups of students word toward common goals...
uses cooperative learning
A study comparing students enrolled in magnet schools with those in other city schools showed that magnet students
showed greater gains in reading and math
Rochelle is taking a test in which she is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a straw. This is most likely a test of
U.S. legislation mandates that schools place children who require special supports for learning in
the "least restrictive" environments that meet their educational needs
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