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Psychology Chapt. 1 MC

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Which of the following best describes the view of the mind held by Plato and Socrates?
The mind is separate from the body and continues after the body dies.
Which phil. was the first to conclude that knowledge results from our memories of our experiences?
Aristotle
Descartes theory of how our brain controlled our reflexes involved which of the following?
brain fluid and animal spirits
Which phil. is most well known for theorizing that the mind at birth is tabula rasa or a blank slate?
John Locke
The ideas that most directly helped form modern empiricism were proposed by
John Locke and Francis Bacon
Which phil would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?
Aristotle
The first psychological laboratory was established by
Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt's lab work involved experimental studies of
reactions to sensory stimulation
Which of the following innovations differentiated Wilhelm Wundt's research the most from any psychologist before him?
Lab research
Wilhelm Wundt's early experiments were attempts to investigate which area of psychology>
the simplest metal processes
Why is Wilhelm Wundt often considered the first scientific psychological researcher?
He gathered data trough experiments in his lab
In Wilhelm Wundt's experiments, participants were asked to press a key as soon as they were consciously aware of perceiving a sound. By asking part. to examine and report their conscious experience, Wundt was making use of which of the following?
introspection
Who used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind?
Edward Titchener
The self-reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings is called
introspection
Introspection was the basic research oil used by in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images
Edward Titchener
Research participants were asked to monitor and report their own immediate sensory reactions to differently colored objects. This research involved a technique known as
introspection
The method of introspection was used by Titchener to identify
elements of sensory experience
Research participants who carefully observe and report their immediate reactions and feelings in response to diff musical sounds are using the method known as
introspection
The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of
structuralism
Contemporary psychologists are most likely to reject which of the following as appropriate for the study of psychology?
introspection
The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by
William James
William James was a prominent
functionalist
Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the
adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions
Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Ass.?
Mary Calkins
Which psychologist was the first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology after Harvard U declined to give Mary Calkins the Ph.D?
Margaret Washburn
Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for emerging discipline of psychology?
William James
The personality theorist Sigmund Freud was an Austrian
physician
In its early years, psychology foxed on the study of , but from the 1920s to the 1960s, American psychologist emphasized the study of
mental life; observable behavior
Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior"?
John B. Watson
Who would be most likely to emphasized the role of the unconscious in affecting behavior?
Sigmund Freud
In explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on , whereas humanistic psychologists concentrate on
childhood experiences and unconscious though processes; current environmental influences on potential
Behaviorists dismissed the value of
introspection
Which of the following psychologists most clearly rejected the value of introspections>
John B. Watson
Humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of
healthy growth potential
In the 1960s, humanistic psychologists considered the approach advanced by behaviorist to be excessively
mechanistic
Int he early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of
mental processes
Which area of psychology might be best suited to investigate the following research question: what happens in our brains when we forget details about stressful life events, and how does this process affect behavior?
cognitive neuroscience
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes
Arguments as to whether psychological differences b/w men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involve a debate over the issue of
nature vs. nurture
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is ore heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
nature vs. nurture
Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her African-American and Asian American friends result from biological of cultural influences. In this instance, Lissette is primarily concerned with the relative contributions of
nature and nurture
In the context of debates regarding the origins of knowledge, Aristotle is to as Plato is to
nurture; nature
The inheritance of behavioral characteristics was emphasized by
Charles Darwin
The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
natural selection
Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin believed that behaviors, such as the emotional expressions associated with human rage, could be explained by natural selection. Which early psychologist would be most likely to agree with Darwin's assessment?
William James
Which statement best exemplifies contempt. psychology's understanding of the nature nurture issue>
Depression is a disorder of the brain and of thought
The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of
multiple levels of analysis
Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciated the complexity of Janna difficulties requires
a biopsychosocial approach
Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?
Biopsychosocial
Prof Brody attempts to measure the relative contributions of inborn traits and social influences on homosexual behavior. Her research efforts best illustrate the interests of the approach
biopsychosocial
Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative contributions of heredity and experience to personality development?
biopsychosocial
Prof reed attempts to asses the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibility to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the approach
biopsychosocial
Margaret has difficulty speaking in from of her classmates and explains to a friend "Everybody in my family is shy, so it must be genetic". Using the biopsychosocial approach to understanding her behavior, Margaret should
examine her additional psychological and social-cultural influences on shyness.
Depression is an illness that may berated to chemical imbalances int eh brain, illogical thinking, and impaired social skills, Such an integrated explanation best illustrates the
biopsycholosocial approach
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory
biological
The biological perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by
blood chemistry
Mr. Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. He favors a perspective on depression
biological
The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how
people encode, process, store, and retrieve info
Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?
cognitive
Prof Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the perspective
evolutionary
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is tits emphasis on
unconscious conflicts
Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses
behavioral
Mrs. Thompson believes that her son as become an excellent student bc she consistently uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning effort. Her belief best illustrates a perspective
behavioral
which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?
evolutionary
Mark believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods bc this has enhance human survival. His belief best illustrates the perspective
evolutionary
Akira believes that her son has become a good student bc she always praises his learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a perspective
behavioral
Mrs Alfieri believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. she is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) perspective
psychodynamic
Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states
biological
In a class lecture, Prof Hampton emphasized the extent to which abnormal blood chemistry can contribute to psychological disorders. The professor's lecture highlighted a perspective on psychological disorders
biologival
A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is emptying a(n) perspective
psychodynamic
The behavioral perspective is most likely to emphasize the importance of
observable responses
Natassia believes the boys learn to be more aggressive than girls primarily because boys are more frequently exposed to external pressures to fight. Natassia''s belief most directly exemplifies the perspective
behavioral
Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve info?
cognitive
A concern with the reasoning processes that contribute to effective problem soling is mod characteristic of the perspective
cognitive
Dr. Macpherson believes that the way students organize and think about the info in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied. Dr. MacPherson's ideas most directly exemplify the perspective.
cognitive
Dr. Kosak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcohol dependence among cities of a small African country can be attributed tot he strong fundamentalist religious influences int hat region. This belief best illustrates a(n) perspective
social-cultural
Which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own life experiences?
cognitive
Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encored among various ethnic communities?
social-cultural
Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with vein members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a(n) perspective.
social-cultural
Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?
evolutionary
A theoretic perspective in psychology can be like a two-dimensional view of a three-dimensional object because each perspective is
limited in its scope
Dr. Robinson conducts basic research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson's research best represent?
biologival psychology
Dr. Stantiello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that he is a(n) psychologist
developmental
Dr. T iao conducts basic research on the effects of head inures on people's proble-solving and abstract-reasonign skills. Which psychological specialty does her recency best represent?
biological psychology
Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely that Dr. Winkle is a(n) psychologist
developmental psychologist
Dr. Karima conducts basic research on the relative effectiveness of massed practice and spaced practice on a person's ability to remember info. He is most likely a psychologist
cognitive
Dr. WIlcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between shy an outgoing people. He is most likely a(n) psychologist
personality
Dr. Veenstra conducts basic research on the impact of racial prejudice on behavior. He is most likely a(n) psychologist
social
Dr. Valeigh conducts basic research on the relationship between adults' language skills and their capacity to solve math problems. He is most likely a(n) psychologist
cognitive
Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identity the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does his work best represent?
industrial-organizational psychology
which professional specialty focuses not he diagnosis and treatment of people with psychological disorders>
clinical psychology
Working in a community mental health center, Dr. Thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. He is most likely a(n) psychologist
clinical
Dr. Lipka is involved in a n applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. She i most likely a(n) psychologist
industrial-organizational
For no apparent reason, adam has recently begun to feel so tense and anxious that he frequently stays home from work. It would be most beneficial for Adam to contact a(n) psychologist
clinical
Clinical psychologists specialize in
providing drug therapy to troubled people
The specialist most likely to have a medical degrees is a(n)
Psychiatrist
Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. WHich specialty area does his research best represent?
social psychology
Mr. Kay is interested in whether individual differences affect learning. Mr. Kay is most likey a(n) psychologist
educational
Mr. Bown uses her knowledge of a person's cognitive processes to design computer programs that are easier to use. Mr. Brown is most likely a(n) psychologist
human factors
Mr. Christian has designed a camera with buttons that are easy to reach and see. He is most likely
engaged in applied research
While reading her AP Psychology textbook, Sara scans the section headings, noticing how the units are organized, and forms questions to answer while reading. According to the get, her strategy best reflects
active processes of the material
According to the text, the SQ3R study method is affective because it
utilizes active processing of the text info