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Psych sem review 2
All vocab from AP Psychology Ch.1-5
Terms in this set (49)
difference threshold (just noticeable difference)
the smallest physical difference between two stimuli that can still be recognized as a difference
the size of JND is proportional to the intensity of a stimulus (JND is large when stimulus intensity is high and is small when the stimulus intensity is low) (easier to detect if stimulus is quieter/lower)
the thin, light sensitive layer at the back of the eyeball that extracts information from light waves (form of electromagnetic energy)
photoreceptors in the retina that are especially sensitive to dim light (125,000,000)
photoreceptors in the retina that are especially sensitive to colors (7,000,000)
the tiny area of sharpest vision in the retina
the bundle of neurons that carries visual infromation from the retina to the thalamus (made up of ganglion cells)
idea that cells in the visual system process colors in complementary pairs, explains color sensations from the bipolar cells (red and green, yellow and blue, black and white)
sensations that linger after the sitmulus is removed
total inability to distinguish colors
a thin strip of tissue sensitive to vibrations in the cochlea. This part of the ear contains hair cells connected to neurons. When a sound wave causes the hair cells to vibrate, the associated neurons become excited and the sound waves are transduced into nerve activity.
sense of hearing
sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other (connects to parietal lobes)
chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of their species (sexual receptivity, danger, territorial boundaries and food sources)
incorrect perception of a stimulus pattern
emphasizes how we organize incoming stimulation into meaningful perceptual patterns-because of the way our brains are innately structured
a pattern or distinct feature
background of a pattern that does not command attention
the tendency to fill in gaps in figures and to see incomplete figures as complete
law of similarity
tendency to group similar objects together
law of proximity
tendency to group objects together when they are near each other
Any brain process that does not involves conscious processing, including both preconscious memories, and unconscious processes.
Information that is not currently in consciousness but can be recalled to consciousness voluntarily or after something calls attention to them.
In classic Freudian theory, a part of the mind that houses memories, desires, and feelings that would be threatening if brought to consciousness.
A common (and quite normal) variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.
Physiological patterns that repeat approximately every 24 hours, such as the sleep-wakefulness cycle.
A stage of sleep that occurs approximately every 90 minutes, marked by bursts of rapid eye movements occurring under closed eyelids. REM sleep periods are associated with dreaming.
The recurring periods, mainly associated with the deeper stages of sleep, when a sleeper is not showing rapid eye movements.
A condition in which a sleeper is unable to move any of the voluntary muscles, except those controlling the eyes. Sleep paralysis normally occurs during REM sleep.
A condition of increased REM sleep caused by REM-sleep deprivation.
A sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning.
The story line of a dream, taken at face value without interpretation.
The symbolic meaning of objects and events in a dream. Usually an interpretation based on Freud's psychoanalytic theory or one of its variants.
The most common of sleep disorders - involving insufficient sleep, the inability to fall asleep quickly, frequent arousals, or early awakenings.
A respiratory disorder in which the person intermittently stops
Deep sleep episodes that seem to produce terror, although any terrifying mental experience is usually forgotten upon awakening. Occurs mainly in children.
A disorder of REM sleep, involving sleep-onset REM periods and sudden daytime REM-sleep attacks usually accompanied by cataplexy.
An induced state of awareness, usually characterized by heightened suggestibility, deep relation, and highly focused attention.
A state of consciousness often induced by focusing on a repetitive behavior, assuming certain body positions, and minimizing external stimulation. Meditation may be intended to enhance self-knowledge, well-being, and spirituality.
Chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior by their effects on the brain.
Drugs that create hallucinations or alter perceptions of the external environment and inner awareness.
Highly addictive drugs, derived from opium, that can produce a profound sense of well-being and have strong pain-relieving properties.
Drugs that slow down mental and physical activity by inhibiting transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.
Drugs that arouse the central nervous system, speeding up mental and physical responses.
The reduced effectiveness a drug has after repeated use.
A process by which the body adjusts to, and comes to need, a drug of its everyday functioning.
A condition in which a person continues to use a drug despite its adverse effects - often despite repeated attempts to discontinue using the drug.
A pattern of uncomfortable or painful physical symptoms and cravings experienced by the user when the level of drug is decreased or the drug is eliminated.
A desire to obtain or use a drug, even though there is no physical dependence.
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