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EPY-2523-VS01E Final Exam
Terms in this set (57)
The psychosocial domain concerning the development and expression of independence is called
The capacity to make independent decisions and follow through with them
The aspect of independence related to changes in an individual's close relationships
Research indicates that ____ has negative effects on adolescents' mental health, whereas _____ has positive effects
What parenting type promotes healthy emotional autonomy in adolescents?
Between middle and late adolescence, individuals become
more likely to weigh the long-term consequences of their choices
In early and middle adolescence, adolescents become more _____ with respect to parents, and more _____ with respect to peers
Piaget's theory of cognitive development emphasizes shifts in
the kind of reasoning that individuals use to make decisions
Postconventional reasoning can also be referred to as
principled moral reasoning
Individuals are more likely to engage in risky behavior when they see the behavior as
a personal choice rather than an ethical dilemma
When college students were asked to rate the most important criteria for deciding when someone is ready to get married, what was the most consistently endorsed item?
capacity for intimacy
Neuroimaging studies have shown that connections between different parts of the brain during adolescence cause
improved interpersonal competence
Based on Sullivan's theory of interpersonal development, intimacy is first expressed in
same -sex relationships
One study that used brain-imaging techniques to investigate adolescents' neural responses to rejection while playing an online game called "Cyberball" found that
adolescents high in rejection sensitivity show a different pattern of brain activity in response to exclusion and are more likely to develop symptoms of depression
What is a fact about girls in middle adolescence?
Their friendships are fragile
Friendships based on which criteria are more likely to be found among adolescents than younger children?
Optimal social development during adolescence most likely requires healthy relationships with
both parents and peers
In contrast to Sullivan's claims about adolescent friendships, more current research has found that
the number of same-sex intimate friends adolescents have tends to increase or stay the same as they make opposite-sex intimate friends
According to one study from Furman and Simon, on which person's behavior does an internal working model of relationships have the greatest effect?
Sarah, an adolescent girl
Adolescents behave in a variety of ways within dating relationships that are usually most significantly shaped by
scripts that are learned at home and from the mass media
What is the best way to conceptualize adolescent sexual development?
As gradual stages of increasing stages
Research into the sexual activity among adolescents has found that
There is a wide variation in what activities adolescents think count as sex
The sexual ____ of males and females may be similar, but sexual ____ of males and females is quite different.
"Sexual socialization" refers to
the way in which an individual is exposed to and educated about sexuality
What is sexually transmitted diseases is caused by a virus?
HIV is transmitted through
Studies of the long-term consequences of adolescents parenthood indicate that the problems associated with it
may actually be greater for the mother than for their children
Comprehensive sex education has which of the following elements?
It must teach adolescents how to refuse unwanted sex and avoid unintended sex
Achievements concern the development of motives, capabilities, interests, and behavior that relate to ____ in evaluative situations
Adolescents who come from family environments in which parents harshly criticize their children's performance when it does not meet their standards are more likely to develop
fear of failure
Even though Chloe works very hard in school, she gives her classmates the impression that she is uninterested in school in order to have an excuse for her poor performance. What type of behavior is this?
Motivation based on the pleasure one will experience from becoming proficient at a task is called
The belief or expectation that one cannot influence events is called
What is a factor that researchers study in connection with how the home environment positively influences adolescents' level of achievement?
Two characteristics of authoritative parents that positively influence their children's school performance are ______ and ______.
Healthy beliefs about the child's achievement; less tendency to be over-controlling
What would a social scientist find useful about NAEP data?
It allows social scientists to see how the performance of students in the United States has improved or worsened over multiple generations
What type of educational achievement has the most important effect on later earnings?
According to a study of more than 10,000 American Adolescents, approximately ________ of teenagers report having an anxiety disorders by age 18 and _______ of these individuals had already developed an anxiety disorder before turning 12.
one-third; almost all
Carol has just learned that her son, Mike, has been caught shoplifting for the fifth time. Carol told the police that Mike is just reacting to the stress of going through puberty. How accurate is Carol's idea?
Carol is incorrect; problem behavior is virtually never a direct consequence of the normative adolescent changes
The common factor with respect to comorbidity in internalizing disorders is
the subjective state of distress
Which of the following statements about comorbidity is true?
Some experts question whether it makes sense to draw distinctions between anxiety and depression because rates of comorbidity are so high
According to social control theory, delinquency is caused by
a lack of bonds to the family, the school, or the workplace
The message society sends to teenagers about tobacco, drugs, and alcohol
is mixed and unclear about weather they should or should not be used
Which list correctly ranks substances used by high school seniors from most to least popular?
alcohol, marijuana, cigarettes, E-cigarettes
Alcohol and marijuana are considered______ drugs because they are always used before harder drugs
What is considered a risk factor for substance abuse in adolescence?
The neurotransmitter associated with the experience of pleasure that is implicated in substance abuse problems is known as
Evaluations of adolescents treatment programs suggest
drug treatments for adolescents substance abuse are more effective when the adolescent's family is involved in therapy with the adolescent
Individuals high in callous-unemotional (CU) traits
are less likely to empathize with others
Which of the following would be considered a status offense
being truant from school
Treating juvenile externalizing problems with programs and therapies that have proven a scientific basis is known as using
Which would be considered a cognitive symptom of depression?
"Decreased enjoyment of pleasurable activities" and "low self-esteem" would be examples of what type of depressive symptoms?
Sex differences in the level hormone _______ may play a role in making females both more invested in close relationships, and more vulnerable to adverse consequences of interpersonal problems
Many adolescents commit acts of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). This is a behavior
such as deliberately burning or cutting oneself
Many experts endorse a model of depression that suggests individuals who are predisposed toward internalizing problems will develop depression when they are exposed to chronic or acute stressors. This is called:
the diathesis-stress model
To treat depression, anxiety disorders, and social phobia in adolescence, a class of drugs known as ________ has been shown to be effective, especially when used in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
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