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APUS CH1 1) What conditions existed in what is today the United States that made it "fertile ground" for a great nation?
Water and river valleys formed many of the mountains and valleys that now currently reside in the United States. The ice age brought much water to many empty basins, and it also provided a pathway from Eurasia to the United Sates.
APUS CH1 2-1) List as many factors as you can which led to the Age of Exploration in the 1500s and 1600s.
a. Christians crusaders desired the bountiful goods from Asia
b. Europeans were eager to find a cheaper route for trading goods from Asia and the Spice Islands instead of having to pay expensive tolls for simple delights.
APUS CH1 2-2) List as many factors as you can which led to the Age of Exploration in the 1500s and 1600s. (Continued)
c. Marco Polo's tales of venturing through China also increased the European's appetite to venture in these never before seen lands.
d. Development of caravel allowed Europeans to sail against the harsh winds along Africa
APUS CH1 2-3) List as many factors as you can which led to the Age of Exploration in the 1500s and 1600s. (Continued)
e. There was a thirst to increase income through sugar plantations and slave labor
f. The Unification of Spain allowed the growth of power and influence for Spain to challenge the Portuguese for conquest over the Indies. However Spain was blocked out of the path to the Indies due to Portugal's domain over the coast of Africa. Thus, Spain looked to the West.
APUS CH1 2-1) List as many factors as you can which led to the Age of Exploration in the 1500s and 1600s. (Continued)
g. The Renaissance added an increase desire for adventure.
APUS CH1 3) Explain the positive and negative effects of the Atlantic Exchange.
The Atlantic Exchange allowed for goods from the Americas to pass through to Europe. New varieties of goods were produced thus Europeans had an increasing interest in the Americas. Unfortunately, goods and people were traded over the Atlantic. Slavery began its mass accumulation in the Americas through the Atlantic Exchange. It brought much disease.
APUS CH1 4-1) Were the conquistadors great men? Explain (BAD)
i. The Spanish Conquistadors exterminated many civilizations in the Americas like the Aztec and Inca
ii. Some conquistadors killed and plundered for the sake of gaining higher status.
iii. The conquistadores simply wanted the vast amounts of gold found in the Americas
APUS CH1 4-2) Were the conquistadors great men? Explain (GOOD)
i. Some conquistadores traveled to the Americas to convert the native people.
APUS CH1 4-3) Were the conquistadors great men? Explain (GOOD/BAD)
i. Conquistadors also traveled to America to claim land for Spain.
APUS CH1 5) Were the conquistadors' motives successfully fulfilled? Explain.
Most conquistadores failed to attain their dreams. Those who succeeded had enormous debts on their hands due to the large investments required for the voyage. Spain conquered enormous amounts of land thanks to the efforts of the conquistadores. The goods and gold provided for many benefits for both Spain and the conquistadores.
APUS CH1 6) What is the "Black Legend" and to what extent does our text agree with it?
The "Black Legend" states that the Spanish merely killed, plundered, diseased, and ruined the civilizations of the Americas. The text agrees with the fact that Spain killed, plundered, and diseased the Indians, but it also states that Spain replaced the civilizations with new cultures that could thrive and regrow.
APUS CH2 1) Why was England slow to establish New World colonies?
England was slow to establish colonies in the New World mainly because it got caught up in religious disputes. After Henry VIII ceased relations with the Roman Catholic Church, the Protestant Reformation began in England and Catholics and Protestants battled out with one another. These religious conflicts diverted England's attention from colonialism to religious resolution.
APUS CH2 2) What steps from 1575 to 1600 brought England closer to colonizing the New World?
When Queen Elizabeth stepped to the throne, many were encouraged to spread out to the seas to spread Protestantism and plunder Spanish ships. Soon, Englishmen began small colonization attempts; however, most of them ended in failure. The main catalyst that began to make England a colonizing leader was the Spanish armada's attempt to invade England. The English ships, swifter and faster than that of the Spaniard bulky ships, easily took down the armada. Soon, the Spanish empire had spread itself too thin and it began to crack. The English people's spirits were alive and well to go and colonize new lands.
APUS CH2 3) Explain how conditions in England around 1600 made it "ripe" to colonize N. America.
Secondary sons, those without inheritance, had sought to go to Americas to find greater opportunities. America seemed perfect for religious refugees. Fortunately, joint stock companies improved, and men were able to get necessary funding for grand adventures.
APUS CH2 4) Give at least reasons that so many of the Jamestown settlers died.
On the way to Jamestown, some settlers died on the ship voyage there. Those who finally got to Jamestown succumbed to disease, starvation, and malnutrition.
APUS CH2 5) What factors led to the poor relations between Europeans and Native Americans in Virginia?
Many reasons can be accounted for when considering what caused strains between the Indians and Virginians. Virginians stole food supplies from the Indians. Lord De La Warr also declared war on Indians from orders by the Virginia Company. A series of wars followed between the Indians and Virginians, leaving casualties on both sides. The Virginians soon gained dominance over the Indians, and forcefully kicked the Indians out to satisfy their insatiable thirst for land.
APUS CH2 6) "By 1620 Virginia had already developed many of the features that were important to it two centuries later." Explain.
Virginia began to become on one of the greatest producers of tobacco, thus leading it to become a more successful colony. Also, Virginia produced the House of Burgesses, which was one of the few parliament governments that survived in America.
APUS CH2 7) In what ways was Maryland different than Virginia?
Maryland was a safe place for the Catholics to reside in.
APUS CH2 8) What historical consequences resulted from the cultivation of sugar instead of tobacco in the British colonies in the West Indies?
Tobacco was a crop easily sustainable by meager men. Sugar, on the other hand, required large investments and wide planting in order for plantation owners to gain profit. Sugar required the labor of African slaves, while slaves were too expensive to be maintained for tobacco farmers.
APUS CH2 9) In what ways was Georgia unique among the Southern colonies?
Georgia was to act as a buffer in that it was meant to protect the Carolinas from Spain and France. Georgia was then given much funding from Britain for protection. Population grew slow due to hardy soil, continuous barrage of attacks, and restrictions on slavery.
APUS CH3 1) How did John Calvin's teachings result in some Englishmen wanting to leave England?
The Protestant Reformation was led by Henry VIII, who became the head of the Church of England. Unfortunately, Henry had no interest in making great strides in religion. On the other hand, puritans who adopted many of Calvin's teachings saw that great religious zeal was needed, and so they decided to separate from the stiff Church of England to the Americas.
APUS CH3 2) Explain the factors that contributed to the success of the Plymouth colony?
The Plymouth colony was successful. The people cultivated great harvests and had firm economic foundations in fur, fish, and timber. Capable leaders such as William Bradford also helped to keep order within the colonies. The Puritans large and mutual devotion to God provided for a tight-knit unity.
APUS CH3 3) Why did the Puritans come to America?
The Puritans were outraged with the Church of England's union in the church pews between the "saints" and the "damned." Many of these Puritans went on to become Separatists, those who left the Church of England to find a new more accepting place of worship.
APUS CH3 4) How democratic was the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Explain.
Men were allowed to vote in Massachusetts, but only those from Puritan congregations. However, in town governments, all males were allowed a voice to speak about public issues.
APUS CH3 5) What happened to people whose religious beliefs differed from others in Massachusetts Bay colony?
Those who had beliefs different than the Puritans were not allowed to vote. They were highly persecuted.
APUS CH3 6) How was Rhode Island differed than Massachusetts?
In Rhode Island, there was religious freedom, no taxes to support churches, and no mandatory worship.
APUS CH3 7) In what ways did the British North American colonies reflect their mother country?
Some colonies had a main religion similar to England. Many had small scale legislative governments based on Parliament in England.
APUS CH3 8) Why did hostilities arise between Puritans and Native Americans? What was the result?
As Puritans pushed further and further in to the land, they began to invade the living space of the Indians, who retaliated in response. The disease that the Puritans and other Europeans brought already made the Indians resentful due to the Europeans having killed a large number of Indians.
APUS CH3 9) Assess the following statement, "The British colonies were beginning to grow closer to each other by 1700."
First of all, colonies began to unite to defend against the countless number of Indian attacks. Colonies could consult other colonies on issues that affected all of them, and when laws were to be placed each colony voiced two votes.
APUS CH3 10) How did events in England affect the New England colonies' development?
The king in England paid little attention to the colonies in America due to salutary neglect. This allowed colonists more freedom from such things as taxes forced exports.
APUS CH3 11) Explain how settlement by the Dutch led to the type of city that New York is today.
New York was mainly led by stockholders. This is understandable now that we have, in our current time, Wall Street and the Stock Exchange based in New York. The fact that it was a seaport colony, it was very sociable.
APUS CH3 12) What had William Penn and other Quakers experienced that would make them want a colony in America?
The faith of a Quaker was highly looked down upon on in England. People like Penn who were men and women of strong Quaker faith refused to suffer on going persecution, took the initiative to travel to the Americas in search of religious freedom.
APUS CH3 13) What do the authors mean when they say that the middle colonies were the most American?
The middle colonies had fertile soil which was perfect for cultivation of crops. They also had efficient rivers. They had bountiful amounts of lumber for timber industry, and harbors provided for great ports for trade. The populations were more ethnically mixed than those of the other colonies. There was a fair sense of religious freedom and democracy.
APUS CH4 1) "Life in the America wilderness was nasty, brutish, and short for the earliest Chesapeake settlers." Explain
Diseases such as malaria, dysentery, and typhoid cut down the numbers of the Chesapeake settlers. Disease also shortened the lives of many, so that hardly few lived past their twenties. The low availability of women also decreased the rate of marriage, reducing the chance for engendering new generations.
APUS CH4 2) What conditions in Virginia made the colony right for importation of indentured servants?
In Virginia, the key crop in the colony was tobacco. As the growing of tobacco was spread, plantation owners required more and more labor. Unfortunately, many of the common forms of labor were too expensive. However, indentured servants, those who had debts to be paid, needed work to pay off their debts, giving plantation owners a financial lift.
APUS CH4 3) Who is most to blame for Bacons' rebellion, the upper class or lower class? Explain.
Berkeley, the governor of Virginia, should be to blame. He affiliated with the Indians who brutally attacked settlers whom he forced out in the frontier, without providing the frontier men with adequate protection or rights.
APUS CH4 4) Describe slave culture and contributions.
African slaves on South Carolina's coast islands developed a language called Gullah which incorporated both English and other African languages. Slaves helped the country in terms of labor and specialized labor. Contributions in music also led to jazz later.
APUS CH4 5) Describe southern culture in the colonial period, noting social classes.
In the southern society of the American colonies, plantation owners were at the top. These men held vast lands and slaves, and also made up many of the positions in Virginia's House of Burgesses. Those below were the small-scale farmers, who were much weaker than the plantation owners. The next low was the state of landless whites, who were mostly free indentured servants who had nothing to live on. At the bottom, were the African slaves.
APUS CH4 6) What was it like to be a woman in New England?
Women in New England society were mainly meant to produce a large family. A mother's life consisted of the mundane domestic chores as well as the care of her children.
APUS CH4 7) Explain the significance of the New England towns to the culture there.
New England towns consisted of tightly knit families. Towns that contained more than fifty families were forced to some sort of elementary education for children.
APUS CH4 8) What was the halfway covenant and why was it needed?
The Halfway covenant was required as Puritan societies were spreading further out. The main church congregations could not be closely attached to those who were out of their reach. The covenant allowed for merely baptism rather than baptism and full communion. This began to mingle together partial believers and those who took full strides in faith.
APUS CH4 9) How did the environment shape the culture of New England?
Puritan influence for democracy introduced democracy into actual politics. The education provided in large towns provided for modestly educated people.
APUS CH4 10) How much equality was evident in the colonies?
Those who were of high class attempted to bring out the European society within America through laws and such. Those who were poor were excluded from partaking in certain activities. Fortunately, America was meant to be a land for democracy not class.
APUS CH5 1) What was the significance of tremendous growth of population in Britain's North American colonies?
The great population growth in America resulted in an American to English ratio of one to three. This allowed a position for a shift of power to occur.
APUS CH5 2) What was the significance of large numbers of immigrants from places other than England?
America soon became a melting point for countless types of Europeans. This had a many outlets to the different types of loyalties that people had. The fact that not all the colonists were not English made those who were not English have no sense of loyalty to the British crown.
APUS CH5 3) Assess the degree of social mobility in the colonies.
America was a land of equality. No aristocracy claimed total dominion nor was America plagued with countless homeless and broken. It was not uncommon for a random immigrant to rise into great ranks of wealth. This was much different in England where such a step would be impossible. Such example of those who could rise to riches were indentured servants who later paid off their debts. Others, such as convicts and slaves, had little chance to reach far in prosperity in America.
APUS CH5 4) How had the history of the Scots-Irish affected their characteristics?
The Scots-Irish were people who preferred to be mainly independent. It is no wonder because of all the corruption and worn out soil in Ireland that the people moved to America. Even then, the Irish did not populate mixed congregations in the colonies. They, instead, became pioneers in going to the west. Their religious persistent with Presbyterianism made them opponents of both the English and American churches.
APUS CH5 5) Describe some of the more important occupations in the colonies.
The greatest vocation one could have in America was to be part of the Church as a cleric. Others occupations included physicians and lawyers. Physicians were poorly trained and not as highly valued as the clergy. Lawyers were also frowned upon as they were only seen as those who made unnecessary comments. Many Americans were farmers, and they were vital as they created either cash crops or vital food for the colonies. Being a sea man was also valued because of the fishing he brought as well as the goods he would be required to import and export.
APUS CH5 6) What was the Great Awakening? List some of its results.
People began to complain over the constant droning of the priests and their seemingly pointless messages. There were also spiritual fears brought about by Calvinism such as predestination. Soon pastors such as John Edwards began emphasizing the value of God's grace and the foolishness of salvation by works. The Great Awakening was the first mass movement by the American people which ignited new trill for Christianity and resulted in the development of churches, pastors, and missionaries.
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