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Ap Psychology Unit 3a vocabulary
Terms in this set (27)
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
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