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can be on sentence


list, no description


ID and clarify, no why and how


How and why


How and why

What are some factors that lowers approval rating?

Terrorist attack - the president filters the police and security, blame him.
War - causes mixed feelings
Economy drop - lacking organization, blame someone (president)
Scandal - shows lack of responsibility, and bad judgement

What are some factors that raise approval rating?

Go into war - fight back
End war - victory
Improve economy
Bin laden

What is an elite?

a group of people who have a disproportionate amount of resources

What are all the Elite theories?

Marxism, Mills, Weber, Pluralist, and Hyper-pluralism

Explain Marxism

it is class based, the struggle is between the poor and the rich. Proletariat (working class) vs. bourgeoisie (upper class) there will be a revolution where the proletariat will succeed.

Explain Mills

it is a power elite. He thinks that 3 groups have power: corporate leaders, top military leaders, and top political leaders. Eisenhower had a military alliance MIC (military industrial complex) it runs the country.

Explain Weber

Believes in bureaucracy (government agencies - FBI, post office) because they apply the laws they got a lot of power

Explain Pluralist

there are a lot of groups that have power (no single elite)

Explain Hyper-pluralism

-compromise for al the groups competing
-creates gridlock, not good, nothing gets done

What is power?

having leverage over people (troops to war)

What is authority?

justified power, do you have a right to use that power (title)

What is legitimacy?

-power + authority
-the government gets legitimacy from the constitution, a charismatic leader, and history

What is democracy?

-demos (people) + kratos (authority)
-made up with representative/indirect democracy and direct democracy

What is Representative/indirect democracy?

-people choose their leaders and they rule based on being elected

What is direct democracy?

-the people decide everything
-N.E. Town Meeting: people would vote
-Referendum: the state legislator makes a law and the people vote yes or no for it
-Initiative: being put on the ballad, asked the people and made a decision for that state (gay marriage)
-Recalls: when you kick a politician out of office even after they are elected, but has to go on a ballad

What is a Demagogue?

a charasmatic leader who takes advantage of peoples passion (i.e. Hitler)

Define Politics

a struggle about raising and setting disputes on who is going to pay or gain from it

Majoritarian politics

everyone pays, everyone benefits

Client Politics

everyone pays, few benefit

Entrepreneurial politics

few pay, everyone benefits

Interest Group Politics

few pay, few benefit

What Politics group is SS?


What Politics group is Pork?


What Politics group is Brady Bill?


What Politics group is National Defense?


What Politics group is Subsidies?


What Politics group is Regulation on Prescription Drugs?


What Politics group is Superfund?


What Politics group is 60 day notice before being fired?

Interest Group

What Politics group is lower drug use?


What Politics group is Veteran Benefits?


State of Nature

living in nature and no government

Law of Nature

the rules that people should follow without any government - no one should violate someones natural rights (life, liberty, property)

Social Contract

two sides - people and government, giving up some of your freedom in return for security, the government must be controlled

Fiduciary power

trust in the government

Natural Liberty

freedom you have in the State of nature

Civil liberty

giving up some of your natural liberties by joining society


when people have individual rights, limited government

Majority Absolution

majority rules on everything (he believed in this)


Locke thought that religion should be a private thing

Taxation without representation

Sugar Act, Quartering Act, Stamp Act, and Townshed

Sugar Act

tax on sugar

Stamp Act

pay for a stamp for any document

Quartering Act

any soldier should be able to be fed and housed

Townshed Act

more taxes on imported goods (tea)

Samuel Adams

complains about unfair taxes, he wanted to boycott British goods coming in

Boston tea party

they wanted a monopoly of tea to go to that one tea company. Indians dumbed all the tea from the ship into the water

Intolerable Act

punishes Boston for what happened

1st Continental Congress

Patrick Henry said: "Give me liberty or give me death!"

"The Association"

a boycott of British goods

Restraining Act

put limits on New England states, saying that they could only trade with England and Ireland

2nd Continental Congress

select George Washington to be commander in chief of colonial army - this lead to the revolutionary war

Plagiarism from the Declaration of Independence

-law of nature
-life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
-overthrowing the government
-social contract

Complaints from the Declaration of Independence

-no jury trials
-housing soldiers
-lack of representations

Common Sense

a pan flit that Thomas Paine wrote about independence

Pennsylvania Constitution

they thought it was a perfect constitution - unicameral legislator, Thomas Paine liked it, give all power to legislative power, voted by people. They passed laws but there was no way to check

Articles of Confederation

where states have all the power - unitary/federation/confederation


National Government powers - i.e. Paris could take powers away from Neice


not common, the state and national government have independent powers


the opposite of unitary, a bunch of states that can do what they want, there is a national government but it is very weak

How many states to pass a law?

In order to pass any laws you need 9 our of 13 to approve.

How many states to add to the constitution?

all 13 states

Court System

no supreme court - certain things you want equal justice for all, like segregation and state vs. state

Congress can...

declare war, coin money, run the post office, be involved in the appointment of army officers

Congress can't...

regulate commerce, raise taxes, or raise an army

John Hancock

was the first president but didn't show up

Annapolis Convention

they were concerned about commerce, only 5 states showed up

Shay's Rebellion

people were in debt and the result in Massachusetts was foreclosures because the state courts enforced it. Daniel Shay's house got foreclosed so he gathered people to stop the courthouse from making sessions. There was no police, so they had to raise money to hire police to stop it. This showed how weak the system was.

Thomas Jefferson Quote

"Tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with blood of Patriots and Tyrants."

Constitutional Convention

wanted it to be in secret - 35 delegates were to represent the 13 colonies. Jefferson and John Adams were abroad, Samuel Adams couldn't attend, Patrick Henry "smelled a rat" and didn't want a part of it. James Madison, Alexander Hamalton, George Washington, Ben Franklin (81 - liked to drink and got escorted everywhere) all went. The task was to revise things out of the confederation but they didn't know until the end that they were going to re write all the rules.

Virginia Plan

Virginia wanted a bicameral legislature (2 houses). Representation was by population. The state legislature will be nominated.
-Members of the upper house chosen by lower house
-Members of lower house chosen by population
-The congress would choose president and appoint judges
-A council could veto acts of congress

New Jersey Plan

small states preferred this, unicameral, and one representative per state (equal representation)

The Great Compromise

2 houses (bicameral) - lower house elected by people, 65 representatives - upper house (senate) was elected by the state legislatures (later they got rid of it and now it is by the people)


separate powers - senate are moderate and keeps the house in check.
-Representatives from the house only represent a part of a state
-Senate represents the whole state


if you have a slave, then they are heavily taxed - some states were free states, 3/5 compromise = each slave would count for 3/5
-Congress regulating commerce - 2/3 votes

Slave Trade

they postponed it for 20 years. if a slave goes to a free state, they must go back to their old state.

President's term

they had unlimited 4 year terms
- there was some debate between one 6 year term and 2 4 year terms

President's election

Big vs. small states - E.C.
# E.C. = # of Representatives (pop) + # of Senate (2 per state)
-small states get 3/538 vs. 200,000/320,000,000. They get more attention so thats why there was no direct election

Describe Roche

He wrote a book about the motives of the Framers.
Roche's thesis was that the constitutional convention should be practical/compromise and people should sell the document back home.
- Congress was a compromise (H vs. S)
- E.C. was a compromise (small happy because of the minimum of 3 states/people happy because they vote/big states happy because they get a lot of say/house happy because they get to choose the president in case of tie/senate gets to choose the VP in case of tie

Describe Beard

He wrote a book about the motives of the Framers. Beard's thesis was that the constitutional convention was a conspiracy of the rich, wealthy people showed up to design the system to favor elites.
-slave owners show up but don't address slavery
-the elites prick elites in the senate
-E.C. the 9 people have all the powers and are elected by president and the senate approves
-Radicals were absent, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry.

What are reasons for the Constitutional Conventions success?

-it was secret
-people were homogenous, same ideas - the trouble makers weren't there
-most were part of the continental congress, they were thinking about a weak government

Ratification and Constitution

they were supposed to get 13/13, but they only got 9/13, so ratifying the constitution was actually illegal.


(Nationalists) Federalists were represented by Hamilton and Madison. They thought that liberty was best in a large public because if everything was done in small states then when people vote, majority would crush them. In order to get anything done in a big state, you need to be moderate and compromise.


(State rights) Antifederalist were concerned about liberty and they thought that liberty would be better in a small public because they were closer to the people. They didn't like congress, s.c., president, and anti elites.

Federalists Papers

-written by Madison, Hamilton and John Jay
-published for NY to persuade NY that the constitution should be ratified
-significance was that it gave legitimacy to the constitution

Federalist 51

-written by James Madison
-all reasons for why large republic is better
-human nature: "if men were Angels no government would be necessary" -Madison
-separation of powers (three branches have their own powers): giving government powers to make sure it checks itself
-Checks and balances: when each branch could interfer

Bill of Rights

-citizens needed guarantees that people have rights that government can't take away
-federalists didn't think they should have a bill of rights
-everyone agreed that if the people ratified the constitution, then the government would put the bill of rights in the constitution
-12 amendments were passed by congress (the bill of rights), but the states only ratified 10
-the BOR protects the people from the government

What are some reasons why we should NOT have a Bill of Rights?

1. Individual rights that people already have under the constitution
-habeas corpus: if arrested, defendant must be brought before a judge to be told what you are being charged with
-Expose facto law: commit an act that is legal at the time, and then they change the law, they can't charge you
-Bill of Attainer: a legislative act that imposes a punishment
-Jury trial in a criminal case
-no religious test: can't be restricted to get a job because of religion
-Privileges and Immunities: where ever you live, you have the same privileges
-No state can impair the obligation of a contract: if you sign a contract, you are not out of it if you move to a different state
2. Every state has its own bill of rights, so we don't need another one
3. The government we are creating are going to have specific limited powers

What are the Articles of the BOR?

-starts with "we the people"
-draw its power from the people
-popular sovereignty
-sets up the goal for the constitution
Article 1: Congress = purse of community
-Federalist 51
-A lot of numbers (538)
-only branch elected by the people
-was a solution to the concern of tyranny (split in 2 parts)
Article 2: Executive - sword of community
Article 3: Judiciary
Article 4: Relationship between states (federalism)
Article 5: Amending the constitution
Article 6: Supremacy clause- federal law is supreme to state laws
Article 7: Ratification- all the names mentioned in the the BOR

Amendment Process

Propose an Amendment:
-congress must have 2/3 majority
-34 state legislature must ask congress to go to the National Convention
-2/3 because they don't want it to be easy to change the constitution
Ratifying an Amendment:
-3/4 of the state legislature have to agree (38)
-ratifying conventions in each state (prohibition) - 3/4 majority
-president is not involved with amendments
-amendments can overturn s.c. decisions
-usually amendments take 7 years to ratify

Failed Amendments

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
-total equality of men and women (cannot distinguish between them)
-women must serve in combat duty
-all girl schools could come to an end
-could lead to the legalization to gay marriage
-divorce cases: women get custody, but this could change that
-Now: National organization of women
-35 states ratified this amendment (3 short)

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