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Terms in this set (15)
Give the genetic characteristics of Prokaryotes.
-Simultaneous transcription and translation
-70S ribosome structure
-Usually only 1 copy per gene
Give the genetic characteristics of Eukaryotes.
-Pairs of chromosomes
-Transcription and translation not simultaneous events
-80S ribosome structure
-Usually 2 copies per gene
1. RNA to protein
2. DNA to DNA
3. RNA polymerase
4. Nucleic acid to amino acid language
5. DNA polymerase
7. Promoter (start)
9. Transcribing in a similar language
10. Gene expression
11. DNA to RNA
12. Start & Stop codons
a. 2, 5, 6
b. 3, 7, 9, 10, 11
c. 1, 4, 8, 10, 12
What is the role of tRNA?
to carry amino acids to ribosomes during translation
What is the role of mRNA?
info for proteins
What is the role of rRNA?
make up ribosomes
Why is there an average of 4 different codons encoding for each amino acid?
There is redundancy in the genetic code--there are typically 4 codons for each amino acid--this allows for the tolerance of certain types of point mutations
How do stop codons function in halting protein synthesis?
Basically, there is no tRNA for a stop codon, and since no tRA's anticodon allows for continued chain elongation, the ribosomal complex dissociates and protein synthesis stops (the protein is released from the ribosome)
a. Nonsense mutation
b. Frameshift mutation
c. Silent mutation
d. Missense mutation
1. Normal protein
2. Incomplete protein
3. Faulty protein
4. Change of codon reading frame
What kinds of mutations are the most severe, point or frameshift and why?
-It changes the whole sequence
1. Acquiring new DNA
2. DNA transfer via a pilus
3. DNA transfer via a bacteriophage
4. Update of free DNA
5. Most common way antibiotic resistance is transferred
What ribosome size do prokaryotes have?
What ribosome size do eukaryotes have?
Why are some protein synthesis inhibitor antibiotics potentially toxic to humans?
The protein synthesis inhibitor in those antibiotics can denature the ribosomes found in our mitochondria and cause them to rupture
What are our mitochondria thought to have derived from during the evolution of the first eukaryotic cells?
Our mitochondria are hypothesized to have once been free-living bacterial cells
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