Human Physiology - Chapter 4 Enzymes and Energy
chemical that (1) increases the rate of a reaction, (2) is not itself changed at the end of the reaction, and )3) does not change the nature of the reaction or its final result.
Protein Catalysts (exception RNA). They lower the activation energy.
energy required to break chemical bonds
The reactant molecules have specific shapes that allow them to fit into the active site.
The molecule that participates in the reaction
Enzyme's Basic Rules
* Enzymes are specific
* Enzymes are required for reactions to happen
* Enzymes are proteins
* Enzymes can be turned on or off
Almost all enymes end with what letters?
A measure of Kinetic Energy. Energy of motion.
What are the effects of Temperature on a reaction?
An increase in temperature will increase the rate and chance of a reaction.
peak range where activity is most likely to occer
extra "helper" molecule that include metal ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cu2+
extra "helper" moleceule. Organic molecules that offen times are transporters.
Inactive form of an enzyme
Process of activation of an enzyme
Process of deactivation of an enzyme
Breakdown and resynthesis of enzymes
The rate of product formation will increase as the substrate concentration increases until the point of saturation
When the relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate reaches a plateau of maximum velocity. "All enzymes are busy"
Both the forward and backward reactions can be catalzed by the same enzymes.
The sequence of chemical reactions. Begins with initial substrate, than through a number of intermediates, and ends with the final product.
1st law of Thermodynamics (conservation of energy)
Energy is not created or destroyed - it is transformed
2nd law of Themodynamics
The amount of entropy increase every time enery is transformed. Energy transformations are not perfect, some "lost" as heat.
chemical reactions that require an input of energy
Reactions that convert milescules with more free energy to molecule with less - release energy as they proceed
Use energy from energy releasing reactions (exergonic) to power energy requiring reactions (endergonic)
*Couple reactions where electrons are transfered from one molecule to another
* 1 molecule loses e-
* 1 molecule gains e-
some energy moves with the transfer and some is lost during the transfer.