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APUSH Unit 3
Terms in this set (99)
Perhaps no issue in American history has generated quite as much controversy or as many interpretations as _____, the "peculiar institution."
Paralleling the growth of the southern economy and its dependence on the slave labor system the number of slaves in the US rapidly increased from 1.5 million in 1820 to _____ million in 1860.
One of the busiest domestic slave trading routes began in Alexandria, VA, and ended in _____, Mississippi.
Congress formally ended the international slave trade on January 1, 1808, the earliest time allowed by the _____.
In order to destroy the potential power of organized white workers to strike, the _____ Company of Richmond switched from white to slave labor "almost exclusively" in 1847.
The majority, approx. _____ percent, of southern whites owned no slaves
In slaves' folktales, the clever _____ usually outwitted the more powerful Brer Fox or Brer Wolf, thus reversing the roles of oppressed and oppressor.
Slaves who hid out for months and years at a time in communities of runaway slaves, especially in the swamps of Florida, were called "_____."
A series of safe houses and stations where runaway slaves could rest, eat, and spend the night before continuing their escape, the ______ was organized by abolitionists.
The most famous slave revolt in North America, which occurred in Southampton County, VA, in 1831 was led by _____.
Escaping the freedom by forging a free black sailor's pass, this ex-slave wrote a powerful narrative of his life to expose the many evils of slavery.
A kindly mistress, she was transformed by slavery from an angel into a demon by the "fatal poison of irresponsible power."
An escaped slave, she became the most famous "conductor" of the Underground Railroad, leading some 300 slaves out of the South on 19 trips.
This slave was the leader of an extensively planned but ultimately unsuccessful slave revolt in Charleston, SC, in 1822.
An intelligent, skilled, and religious slave who led a revolt in Va in 1831 which resulted in the deaths of 55 whites.
An African-American slave who organized an unsuccessful revolt in VA in 1800.
An enlightened and talented rice planter and later governor of SC, he viewed the tasks of slaveholding as both a duty and a burden.
Robert Francis Allston
A southern apologist for slavery, adopting a sociological point of view, he argued that black slaves in the South were better off than the "wage slaves" in the northern factories.
His publication of the radical abolitionist newspaper The Liberator in 1831, along with the Nat Turner revolt of that year, led to a tightening of the slave system in the South.
William Lloyd Garrison
In 1881, this white southerner wrote "The Wonderful Tar Baby Story."
Joel Chandler Harris
As a result of the Second Great Awakening, the _____ Church became the largest denomination in the US by 1844, with over a million members.
Protesting against slavery and the Mexican War, _____ refused to pay his taxes, went to jail briefly, and wrote the classic essay, "On Civil Disobedience" (1849)
In his famous essay Exposition and Protest, John Calhoun presented the doctrine of _____ by which southern states could protect themselves from harmful national action.
The Cherokee remember their forced removal, during which perhaps a quarter of their tribe died, as the _____.
Trail of Tears
In the election of 1832, the National Republicans adopted the name of _____ to show their opposition to "King Andrew" Jackson and his supporters.
As a result of government policies designed to halt inflation during the end of Jackson's term of office, worried investors rushed to convert paper notes into cash, creating the _____.
Panic of 1837
Under the brilliant leadership of Joseph Smith's successor, _____, the Mormons headed westward in 2846 in their continuing search for "the land of promise."
The "Lane rebels" led by Theodore Dwight Weld turned _____ College into the first institution in the US open equally to women and men, blacks and whites.
The American Colonizationist Society, founded in 1816, sent a small number of manumitted slaves to _____ on the west coast of Africa.
In 1837, an angry mob murdered _____, an antislavery editor in Illinois, and destroyed his printing press.
This president was characterized by the Jacksonians as a weak, ineffectual thinker who had won the election of 1824 by bribing Henry Clay for his support
John Quincy Adams
This president used the veto power more often than the six preceding presidents combined.
This president responded inadequately to the economic depression of the late 1830s with sympathetic but limited measures that made things even worse.
Martin Van Buren
This president was nominated on the basis of his military exploits at the Battle of Tippecanoe fought nearly 30 years earlier.
William Henry Harrison
This vice-president from VA was nominated by the Whigs in 1840 to try to underline the regional diversity of the party.
Touted as the female counterpart to the masculine Christ, she founded the Shaker religion, a millennialist group believing in sexual equality and chasity.
A frail New Englander, she reported on the miserable conditions of asylums in MA, helping to stimulate reform efforts there.
A demure but outspoken Quaker, she married abolitionist Theodore Dwight Weld and together with her sister, help him research and write his famous book attack American slavery.
Together with Lucretia Mott, she organized an 1848 convention in Seneca Falls, NY, to proclaim the rights of women.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
This revivalist believed humans were moral free agents who could choose good over evil and needed to commit to reforming society.
Charles G. Finney
The conviction that America's superior institutions and culture gave the US a God-given right, even an obligation, to spread its civilization across the continent was expressed in the phrase ______.
Upon news of the Texas rebellion, Mexican dictator and general _____ hurried north to crush it with an army of 6,000 conscripts.
Hoping the issue would boost his reelection chances in 1844, President _____ reopened the question of annexing Texas.
In securing the Democratic nomination in 1844, ______ called for "the reannexation of Texas at the earliest practical period" and the occupation of the Oregon Territory.
_____ tended to oppose annexation of Texas fearing expansion of slavery and growth of southern power.
Although he successfully negotiated an end to the Mexican War, _____ was fired by President Polk who denounced him as an "unqualified scoundrel."
President Polk considered the 49th parallel a reasonable boundary for the Oregon Territory, for it would extend the _____ to the Pacific.
Joseph Smith's murder in 1844 marked no end to the persecution of his followers, the _____, who decided to seek refuge in the arid Great Basin area of Utah.
Most of the Plains Indians were dependent upon the _____ which provided them with food, fuel, clothing, shelter, and trade items.
Supposedly a measure to validate Spanish and Mexican land titles, it forced California land owners to defend their property.
Gwinn Land law of 1851
A Sioux Chief who refused to abide by a federal agreement in 1851 to keep his tribe north of the Platte River.
In this negotiation ending the Mexican War, the United States secured the Rio Grande border and obtained the regions of Upper California and New Mexico.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
In this first agreement between the US and the Plains Indians, the chiefs accepted certain gifts and payments in return for accepting tribal boundaries.
Fort Laramie Treaty
He led 300 families into Texas in 1823 to help settle northern Mexico.
Stephen F. Austin
As commander-in-chief of the Texan forces, he led them to victory over the Mexican army of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto in 1836.
Ordered by President Polk to protect the Rio Grande border, this general suffered an "attack" by Mexican forces which led to an American declaration of war.
During the Mexican War, this colonel led the American conquest of New Mexico and California.
Stephen W. Kearney
Assuming leadership after the death of Joseph Smith, he organized the Mormons in their westward trek and settlement in Salt Lake City.
A faction of Democrats in NY bolted the party in 1848 and joined with "conscience" Whigs to form the Free-Soil Party and support _____ for president.
Martin Van Buren
The most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850 was the _____, appeasing southerners but infuriating northerners.
Fugitive Slave Act
When President Lincoln met _____ in 1863, he reported to have said, "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war."
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Although it began as a railroad measure, the _____ Act ended in reopening the question of slavery in the territories.
Conducting raids in Latin America in search of additional slave territory during the 1850s, _____ was captured and shot by a Honduran firing squad after invading that country.
Founded in opposition to new immigrants of the 1850s, the _____ Party advocated a longer period of naturalization.
Following his tirade of "The Crime Against Kansas," Senator _____ was caned by Congressman Preston Brooks.
Although losing the Illinois senate race of 1858 to Democrat _____, Abraham Lincoln defeated the same opponent for president of the US in 1860.
Leading a rain on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA, in 1859, radical abolitionist _____ hoped to provoke a general uprising of slaves throughout the upper south.
On April 12, 1861, as Lincoln's relief expedition neared Charleston, General P.G.T. Beauregard's batteries shelled _____, and the Civil War began.
This proposed amendment to the appropriations bill prohibited slavery in any territories acquired from Mexico.
This legislation allowed the organization of the Utah and New Mexico territories.
Compromise of 1850
This document was intended to pressure Spain to sell Cuba to the US.
The Supreme Court declared the Congress had no constitutional power to regulate slavery in the territories.
Dred Scott decision
This document would have provided for the admission of Kansas to the Union as a slave state.
Mexican War hero and Louisiana slaveholder, he was nominated for president by the Whigs in 1848 despite his lack of political experience.
Succeeding to the presidency upon Zachary Taylor's death, he lent his support to the Compromise of 1850.
A lackluster winner of the apathetic election of 1852, he won the election with the support of Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Germany.
Another Democratic northerner with southern principles, he endorsed the Dred Scot decision of 1857 as a final settlement of the issue of slavery in the territories.
Campaigning as a moderate Republican in 1860, he favored a ban on the extension of slavery rather than abolition of the institution.
In Ex parte Merryman, Chief Justice _____ of the Supreme Court ruled that if the public's sfety was endangered, only Congress had the right to suspend the writ of habeas corpus.
Roger B. Taney
Winfield Scot, the Union commanding general at the beginning of the Civil War, favored a cautious, long-term strategy known as the _____.
The early struggle of the Civil War in the East focused on the capture of _____, the Confederacy's capital and one of the South's most important railroad, industrial, and munitions centers.
Originally a U.S. warship, which sank as the federal navy abandoned the Norfolk Navy Yard, the confederates raised the _____ and covered it with heavy armor.
Immigrant workers in eastern cities and those who lived in the southern parts of the Midwest had little sympathy for abolitionism or blacks, supporting the antiwar stance of the Peace Democrats, the so-called _____.
Unless rebellious states (or parts of states in rebellion) returned to the Union by January 1, 1863, the president would declare their slaves "forever free," according to the _____.
On July 3, 1863, General Robert E. Lee sent about 15,000 men in a gallant but futile assault, know as _____, against the Union center at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Fashionable Washington photographer _____, realizing that the camera was the "eye of history," asked Lincoln for permission to record the war.
On April 9, 1865, Grant accepted Lee's surrender at _____, ending the Civil War for all practical purposes.
Some 31,000 Union soldiers were confined and over 12,000 graves were counted at war's end at the Confederate prison of _____ in Georgia.
Only five days after the surrender at Appomattox, a southern sympathizer named _____ assassinated President Lincoln at Ford's Theater.
John Wilkes Booth
An early and prophetic meeting, this battle was characterize by logistic problems for both sides in the supply and movement of large armies.
A surprise Confederate attack, this battle was eventually won by General Grant's forces, but at heavy cost, draining him of sufficient resources to force early capture of the Mississippi River.
A Union victory, this battle presented President Lincoln with the opportunity to issue a preliminary emancipation proclamation.
The end of Lee's evasion of the North, this battle inflicted such heavy losses on his army that he could never mount another southern offensive.
The completion of the Union campaign to gain control of the Mississippi River and to divide the South, this battle ensured the promotion of Ulysses S. Grant as general-in-chief of the Union forces.
Former cabinet member, U.S. senator, and Mexican War veteran, this aristocratic southerner serve as president of the Confederacy.
Noted for his organizational skills rather than his daring leadership on the battlefield, this northern general later ran for president in 1864 on a platform of ending the war.
Although his career in the peacetime army had been undistinguished, this northern general's military genius to see beyond individual battles to larger goals helped him rise to general-in-chief of the Union armies.
Ulysses S. Grant
Waging a defensive war in the early years, this general felt that a successful southern offensive would bring diplomatic recognition and might even force the Union to sue for peace.
Robert E. Lee
Northern general who led the campaign to capture Atlanta and Savannah, he spread destruction to make southerners "fear and dread" their foes.
William T. Sherman
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