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Society of Cincinnati

the society of Continental Army Officers who formed an exclusive hereditary order; ridiculed by Americas in the 1800s because servitude was unknown


the Anglican Church was de-anglicized and re-formed as the Protestant Episcopal Church

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

Thomas Jefferson won a struggle for the divorce between religion and government in this country, and it was called ________.

civic virtue

the notion that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good.

Continental Congress in 1776

this assembly called upon the colonies to draft new constitutions

the similarities with the state constitutions

- contracts that defined the powers of government
- drew authority from the people
- most included bills of rights
- most required annual election of legislators
- created weak executive and judicial branches, and super strong legislatures

Articles of Confederation

adopted in 1777, ratified in 1781
-each state had a single vote
-all bills require nine states to support
-amendments to the Articles require unanimous ratification
- Congress was weak- no power to regulate comerce, or enforce tax-collection program

Old Northwest

public domain recently acquired from the states: northwest of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes

Land Ordinance of 1785

the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and that the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

related to the governing of the Old Northwest, solution was a judicious compromise: there would be two evolutionary territorial stages during which the area would be subordinate to the federal government, then when a territory had 60000 inhabitants, it could be admitted to Congress as a state

George Washington

elected chairman of the Convention in Philadelphia, "the Sword of the Revolution"

James Madison

Father of the Constitution

Virginia Plan

representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on population, "large state plan"

New Jersey Plan

equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states, regardless of size and population, "small state plan"

Great Compromise

larger states were conceded representation by population in the House of Representatives and the smaller states were appeased by equal representation in the Senate


each state no matter how small would have two delegates in this body

House of Representatives

every tax bill or revenue measure must originate in the House, anywhere from 2-7 delegates in this body

common law

Anglo-American law that said that made it necessary to be specific about every conceivable detail

civil law

flexible guide to broad rules of procedure, ex. Constitiution

three-fifths compromise

slave count as three-fifths of a person, South could have a bigger population


opposed the stronger federal government, ex. Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee, followers primarily poorest classes and debtors


supported the stronger federal government, ex. George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, followers were more educated and better organized

The Federalist

Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison penned a masterly series of articles for the New York Newspapers, supported federalism in the Constitution

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