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Steps in controlling muscle
1- action potential in motor neuron release ACH
2- ACH triggers AP in muscle
3- AP progats along jiscle ans down t-tubule
4- AP in t-tubule trigged DHPR
5- DHPR unblock RyR in SR
6- RyR release Ca from SR
7- Ca bunds ro tropomyosin changing its shape
8- troponin moves tropomyosin from actin binding site
9- cross bridge cyclying
a- myosin amd ADP binds to actin
b- myosin oulls releasing ADP
c- myosin bunds ATP releasinf actin
d— myosin cuts ATP to ADP ans resets
sliding filament hypothesis
skeletal muscles contract by having the thick filaments slide past thin filaments
A-no myosin touching actin
B- all myosin heads touching actin
C-actin filaments bump into each other
D-myosin heads binding to wrong actin
E- myosin and actin filaments against the ends of the sacromere (thick and thin filaments)
types of fish swimming muscles
slow and steady & rapid and escape
slow and steady muscles
uses red blood cells so it doesn't fatigue , contracts at the peak of the length tension curve and lose velocity curve , and actives the muscles at the most efficient time
rapid and escape muscles
all white muscle cells , contacts at the peak of the length tension curve and lower velocity curve, activates all the muscle on one side at a time
a lot of scaroplasmic recticum is close to myosin and contracting fibers and alot of ca channels so ca can go in and out fast , the extra troponin does hold ca for long and myosin cycles faster
frog power muscle
white muscles cells used for power , contacts at the peak of the length tension curve and at the lower velocity curve , it's activates all of the muscles cells at the same time
insect flight muscle
needs power and speed , muscles are activated by being stretched , speed comes from the muscles being activated and power comes from the carat is popping in and out so , not attached to the muscle
controls movement through reflexes , sensory neurons carry's information that directly snappses motor neuron to go in and out , reflexes maintains the muscles where they are and coordinates antagonist and antagonistic muscles muscles (opposite movements )
central pattern generators
a group of neurons that produce a rhythmic motor neuron like scratching
muscle fiber receptors
measures how long a muscle is
goli tendon muscle
keep the same tension on a muscle
primary motor cortex
it's role is to trigger conscious movements are the joint or a series of them, they activate a particular movement
goes from the primary cortex to the spinal cord where it snapases with either motor neurons of neurons that control the extremities (moving fingers)
goes from the cerebral cortex (the primary motor cortex) to the brain stem where it's snapases to another cell the goes down the center of the spinal cord and controls core movements
role of cerebullum
control the timing of movements
gets input from the gravity receptors and helps maintain balance while doing a movement
the middle part that controls your ballistic movements, and compare actual movements to intended movements , like throwing a baseball
biggest part and controls sequential movements and judges the timing of things , like scratching your head
starts and stops movement the disinhibition
water soluble hormones production ?
amines are made from amino acids and pumped to vesticles
proteins are first made in from DNA to RNA to RP to goli apparatus to get vesticles with peptides and are stored there
water soluble hormones release?
triggered by external signals in the cell that's making the hormones makes it put protein and amines in a vesticle until sometimes tells its to release , always triggered by ca
water soluble hormones transport ?
binds to a receptor on the surface of the target cell
water soluble hormones effect ?
activates seconds messager system that turns on an exhausting protein
water soluble hormones half life ?
very short , second to minutes
lipid soluble hormones production ?
steroids are made from cholesterol in the cytoplasm , thyroid is made from amino acids from a big protein
lipid soluble hormones release ?
as soon as it's made it gets released since it is lipid soluble
lipid soluble hormones transport?
needs a transport protein to get inside of the cells since not water soluble
lipid soluble hormones effect ?
diffuses into cell to a receptor and the hormones in the receptor goes to the nucleus and turns on the DNA to make protein
lipid soluble hormones half life ?
long , minutes to days
what is the hypothalamus
it's is the master gland because it's controls all of the other glands
where the food is stored
is storage for waste and good bacteria the body needs
Proteins digested ?
actin and myosin first get denatured by an enzyme that uncoils them and chops them up in the stomach
then enzymes from the pancreas break it's up more in the small intestine and enzymes on the small intestine chew of single enzymes
proteins absorbed ?
used secondary active transport and move into the cell with sodium and uses facilities diffusion to leave the cell
proteins processing ?
get picked up by capillary bed that takes them to the liver and gets processed through the portal vein
carbs digestion ?
starts in the mouth and continues to stomach then goes to small intestine where enzymes from the pancreas break it down and cut off simple sugars
glucose and galatitose enter through secondary active transport and leave through facilitated diffusion
fructose enters and exits through affiliated diffusion in the liver
carbs processed ?
lipids digestion ?
nothing in mouth and stomach , emulsification is when bile salt from the liver break the lipids down into tiny droplets
diffused through stomach
lipids processed ?
body size and metabolic rate
as you get bigger your metabolic rate per gram of tissue gets smaller ( mouse has a higher metabolic rate than an elephant)
surface area hypothesis
the smaller then animals is the higher the metabolic rate at a linear slope . smaller animals have a more surface area compared to there volume to the loss a larger percent of body heat so they need a higher metabolic rate to be able to replace the lost energy
why is it wrong ?
bc the results in real life did not match theory , the theory said it would be linear when it is more exponential, and ectothermes do not lose heat
types of muscle fiber
red muscle fiber and white muscle fibers
red muscle fiber
aerobic so alot of red blood cells and mitochondria so gets a lot of oxygens , a slow process but can go for long periods of time , like your posture
white muscle fiber
little red blood cells , anerobic, has alot of power and happened fast
low metabolic rate , doesn't need a lot of food and water , spend less time looking for food and water so high survival rate , uses excess energy to grow and reproduce , can be small , gains heat from environment
ectotherms cons ?
needs external heat source , no endurance , trouble in cold
endotherms pros ?
high metabolism rate so can release energy for long periods of time , does better in cold , constant body temperature, enzymes evolve to the temp they are at
endotherms cons ?
cannot be small because they need surface area , overheats in the tropics , always searching for more water and food so lowers survival rates ,
endotherms in the cold ?
try to insulate feather or fat , thermogenesis ; shivering/contracting muscle or burning fat , reduce metabolic rate (hibernation) birds migrate
core of body is warms extremities are cold
ectotherms in cold ?
reduce metabolic rate , adapt your enzymes to make more than normal and can do more work , or develop enzymes that work in colder temps , some can shiver , put anti freeze in body , freeze fluid outside of cell, super cooling or freezing slowing
endotherms in heat ?
sweating or panting (evaporated cooling ) light colored and course insulation, heat window uses a patch of skin to dump out heat , reduce metabolic rate (estimation)
you let your body heat rise during the day and a night let it cook below normal body temp , go in shade
ectotherms in heat ?
go into shade , hide during day and go out at night , same can sweat , evolve protein to protect from the heat heat shock proteins
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