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Chemistry CH 2

Chemistry CH2 vocab
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acid
Arrhenius: substance that increase H+ concentration when added to water

(Bronsted: a substance that donates a H+)

(Lewis Acid: a species that can donate a pair of electrons)
alkali metal
an element from Group 1A with the exception of H (I.E., Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr)
alkaline earth metal
an element from Group 2A (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)
alkane
hydrocarbons having the general formula C(n)H(2n+2)
allotrope
one of two or more distinct forms of an element
alpha particle
a helium ion with a positive charge of +2
alpha ray
see alpha particle
anion
an ion with a negative charge
atom
the basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination
atomic ion
atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons, giving it a positive or negative charge
atomic mass
the mass of the atom given in atomic mass units (amu)
atomic mass unit
a mass exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom
atomic number (Z)
the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element
atomic weight
the average atomic mass
Beta particle
an electron
Beta ray
see beta particle
Binary (compound)
a substance that consists of just two different elements
Cation
an ion with a positive charge
Chalcogens
elements in Group 6A (O, S, Se, Te, and Po)
Chemical formula
chemical symbols and numerical subscripts used to denote the composition of the substance
diatomic molecule
a molecule that contains two atoms
electron
a negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the nucleus of all atoms
empirical formula
the chemical formula that conveys with the smallest possible whole numbers the ratio of combination of elements in a compound
family
the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table
functional group
the part of a molecule characterized by a special arrangement of atoms that is largely responsible for the chemical behavior of the parent molecule
gamma rays
high-energy radiation
group
the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table
halogens
the elements in Group 7A (F, Cl, Br, I, and At)
heteronuclear
containing two or more different elements
homonuclear
containing atoms of only one element
hydrate
a compound with a specific number of water molecules within its solid structure
hydrocarbon
a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
inorganic compounds
compounds that do not contain carbon or that are derived from nonliving sources
ion
atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons giving it a positive or negative charge
ionic compound
substance consisting of ions held together by electrostatic attraction
ionizable hydrogen atom
a hydrogen atom that can be lost as a hydrogen ion, H+
isotope
atoms that have the same atomic number (Z) but different mass numbers (A)
lattice
a 3d array of cations and anions
law of conservation of mass
an alternative statement of the first law of thermodynamics stating that matter can be neither created nor destroyed
law of definite proportions
different samples or a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio
law of multiple proportions
different compounds made up of the of the same elements differ in the number of atoms each kind that combine
mass number (A)
the number of neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element
metal
element with a tendency to lose electrons, located left of the zigzag line on the periodic table
metalloid
elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals
molecular formula
a chemical formula that gives the number of atoms of each element in a molecule
molecule
a combination of two or more atoms in a specific arrangement held together by chemical bonds
monatomic ion
an ion that contains only one atom
neutron
an electrically neutral subatomic particle with a mass slightly greater than that of a proton
noble gases
elements in group 8A (He, NE, AR, Kr, De, and Rn)
nonmetal
element with a tendency to gain electrons, located in the upper right porition of the periodic table
nucleons
protons, neutrons, and electrons
nucleus
the central core of the atom that contains the protons and neutrons
organic compounds
compounds containing carbon and hydrogen, sometimes in combination with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and the halogens
oxoacid
an acid consisting of one or more ionizable protons and an oxoanion
oxoanion
a polyatomic anion that contains one or more oxygen atoms bonded to a central atom
period
a horizontal row of the periodic table
periodic table
a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together
polyatomic ion
molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons giving it a positive or negative charge
polyatomic molecule
molecules containing more than two atoms
polyprotic acid
an acid with more than two ionizable protons
proton
a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
radiation
the emission and transmission of energy through space in the form of waves
radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of particles or radiation from unstable nuclei
structural formula
a chemical formula that shows the general arrangement of atoms within the molecule
transition elements
an element that has-or readily forms one or more ions that have-an incompletely filled d subshell
transition metals
the elements in group 1B and groups 3B to 8B