HIstory Chapter 5
Terms in this set (83)
Controlled most of America in 1763?
Where did colonists begin settling after the French and Indian war?
Ohio River Valley
Native Americans living west of __________ tried to keep their land
________ and his allies attacked British forts and settlements destroying nearly half a dozen British forts and killing 2,000 backcountry settlers
ban of colonial settlement west of a line drawn up the Appalachian Mountains so that Brittain would avoid further wars with Native Americans.
Proclamation of 1763
Who loses its North American possessions in the French and Indian war?
Who was left with a large debt after the French and Indian war?
Colonists developed a sense of ______________ after the French and Indian war.
Who reists colonists settling in the Ohio River Valley after the French and Indian war?
Who won the French and Indian war?
British and the Colonists
How many men did Massachusettes lose in the French and Indian war?
the purpose was to save money and it required the colonists to 'quarter' or house British troops and provide food and supplies to them
]required that all colonists buy special tax stamps for all kinds of products and activities, such as newspapers, wills, licenses, insurances, etc.
House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses passed several resolutions declaring that they alone had the right to tax people in Virginia
served six terms as governor of Virginia and said, "Give me liberty or give me death" and "If this be treason, make the most of it."
a written request to the governement or someone in authority that is signed by a group of people
said that Parliament had total authority over the colonies
tea on tax
when Parliament repealed all the Townsend duties, this one was left on to demonstrate Parliament's right to tax the colonies
Who was a leading defender of colonial rights against British policies
Committees of Correspondence
group established by Samuel Adams to keep colonialists informed of British actions.
The name which the colonists called the laws that angered them which were passed by King George the third to punish the colonists. The Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act are among these laws.
The harsh laws which were intended to punish the people of Massachusetts for their resistance to England. These laws closed the Boston Harbor, and took away certain rights from colonists. The laws also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes. Parliament passed these laws in a plan to isolate Boston.
The Quebec Act
The law which was passed shortly after the Coercive Acts which set up a permanent government for Quebec and granted religious freedom to French Catholics. This law also granted Quebec the area west of the Appalachians and North of the Ohio River. This provision ignored the colonial claims to the area which further angered the colonists.
Rag figures representing an unpopular individual, or the figures which protesters burnt throughout the summer of 1765.
This was also called revenue. It was what the British had sought for after the French and Indian War which left Britain with great debt. The British King and Parliament made Britain pay part of the cost of the debt to get revenue to fill up Britain's debt.
To refuse to buy items from a particular country as the colonial people refused to buy stamps. Colonial city people urged merchants to do this, or refuse to buy British and European goods in protest. Many of the farmers, merchants, and artisans signed the non importation agreements. They pledged to not buy or use goods imported from Great Britain. As a result, the British merchants lost so much business that they begged Parliament to cancel the Stamp Act.
Non importation agreements
The agreements that colonial farmers, merchants, and artisans signed in agreement of not importing or using certain goods from Great Britain.
What the British merchants begged Parliament to do after they lost a lot of business due to the passing of the Stamp Act. It also means to cancel an act of law.
A colonel of the colonial forces in America. He and his troops of about 1,200 militiamen set up fortifications at Bunker Hill and nearby Breed's Hill, across the harbor from Boston. He led his troops in the battle of Bunker hill which involved the British charging up Breed's hill and constantly being shot by the colonial militiamen. He was most famous for saying "Don't fire until you see the white of their eyes." He and his troops forced the British to retreat. In the end, the Americans ran out of gunpowder and had to withdraw. The British won the battle, but suffered heavy losses.
When relations between the redcoats and the Boston colonists grew tense, a fight broke out between the towns people and the soldiers. Angry townspeople moved through the streets picking up any weapon they could find and threw it at the soldiers. After one of the soldiers was knocked down, the nervous and confused redcoats fired and killed five colonists in this tragic shooting. Among the dead was Crispus Attuck, a dockworker who was part African, and part Native American. This tragic shooting took place on March 5, 1770 in the city of Boston.
Major John Pitcairn
British general who led the army during the battle at Concord. He led his men up to the Colonial militiamen and told the Americans to leave. They obey, but a shot went off which led to the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Groups of civilians trained to fight in emergencies. About a group of 1,200 people of this type of fighting group fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill under the command of Colonel William Prescott. After the battles of Lexington and Concord, the committees of correspondence sent out calls for volunteers to join this type of fighting group. Soon the colonies assembled this type of fighting group against the British, its size was about 20,000 strong. Militias were also used by the British.
The place to which the British marched after their fight against the American minutemen at Lexington. When the British troops arrived there, they discovered that most of the militia's gunpowder had already been removed. They destroyed the remaining supplies. At this town's north bridge the American minutemen were waiting for them. Messengers on horseback rode from this town to Boston warning people of British movements. All along the rode from this town to Boston, people hid behind trees, rocks, and stone fences to avoid the British. As the British marched down the roads, they fired at the people. By the time the British reached Boston, they had wounded at least 174 people and killed 73.
Captain John Parker
The captain who led the group of 70 American minutemen who had been alerted by Revere and Dawes that the redcoats were approaching Lexington. He led his men against the redcoats at the town commons of Lexington. When the fighting was over with the British, eight minute men lay dead.
Declaration of Independence
The document written by Thomas Jefferson which was based off the ideas of thinkers such as English philosophers. It was supported by twelve colonies, and New York would later vote to support it. The delegates of congress took Jefferson's draft of the document and made some changes to it. They approved the document on July 4,1776. John Hancock was the first to sign the document in big print. The document has four major sections. The preamble, or introduction, states that people who wish to form a new country should explain their reasons for doing so. The next two sections list the rights the colonists believe they should have and their complaints against Britain. The final section proclaims the existence of the new nation. In all, this document was used to proclaim that America should be an independent country from Britain. It was distributed to all the newly declared states.
A formal expression of opinion. This was used by the Virginia assembly, and was influence by Patrick Henry to take action against the stamp act passed by Great Britain. The Virginia House of Burgesses declared that it had "the only and sole exclusive right and power to lay taxes"on its citizen.
A leading member of the Sons of Liberty. He was alerted by Dr. Joseph Warren that the British army was marching out of a city. He rode with Dawes to Lexington to warn Samuel Adams that the British were coming. He galloped across the moonlight countryside shouting, "The regulars are out!" to the people and houses he passed along the way. When he reached Lexington, he told Adams and Hancock his news. The town quickly set up a group of 70 minutemen in the town commons who had been alerted by he and Dawes.
The man who published the a pamphlet called "Common Sense" in January of 1776. It captured the attention of the American colonists. The book described how it was "common sense" to stop following the "royal brute" King George the third.
The person who recommended George Washington to be the army general against the British. He also made suggestions to Thomas Jefferson about the draft of the Declaration of Independence. He was a leader in the independence movement. His wife would later become the second of the new nation's first ladies.
He was only 32 when the Congress began, and he had already gained a reputation as a brilliant thinker and writer. He was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, but later on became associated with the movement towards independence. He wrote the Declaration of Independence. He based the declaration off the thoughts of English thinker, John Locke.
Total control of an industry by one company.
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that argued in bold language that the colonists should have complete independence from Britain. He argued that it was simply "common sense" to stop following the "royal brute," King George the third. Common sense inspired thousands of Americans.
Also called the Loyalists. They remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence. At least one American in five were Loyalists. Loyalists supported Britain for different reasons.
Companies of civilian soldiers who boasted that they were ready to fight on a minute's notice.This type of fighting group was used by the American Colonists against the British at Lexington. This group of a branch of the Colonial military was warned by Revere and Dawes that the British were coming to Lexington.
Committee of Correspondance
An organization that used meetings, letters, and pamphlets to spread political ideas through the colonies. It was an organization that Samuel Adams received in Boston in the year 1772. These organization(s) circulated writings about the colonists grievances against Britain. They were formed for resistance to the British rule. Soon, more of these sprang up in the colonies, bringing together protesters who opposed to British measures.
The person who was chosen to be the Continental's army general under John Adams's recommendation. He trained the members of the militia to be disciplined, organized, and to be leaders. He shaped the armed civilians into an army. When he judged his soldiers were ready in March of 1776, he attacked the British in Boston. The redcoats retreated, and he and his troops had been victorious.
What the American colonists viewed Britain's rule as over the colonies. A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.). It usually involves cruel and unjust government.(The King and Parliament would give unfair taxes and ignore the complaints of the colonists.)
George the III
The British king who ruled at the time Britain was losing control of the American colonies. He taxed the colonists and punished them with the Coercive Acts. He ignored the colonists petition, the Olive Branch Petition, and instead, sent his British troops including 30,000 hired German soldiers to fight in America. He was called a "royal brute" in Thomas Paine's book Common Sense. Many of the colonists did not like him. He ruled in a tyrannic manner over the colonies.
One of the dead people who were killed in the Boston Massacre. He was a dockworker who was part African, and part Native American.
He was the captain of the Connecticut militia, and was authorized to raise a force of 400 to seize Fort Ticonderoga. He later learned that Ethan Allen and his troop from Vermont were also planning to attack the Fort. He merged with Allen's force, and the group became known as the Green Mountain Boys. Together they caught the British by surprise and the British garrison surrendered on May 10, 1775. Later on, this captain conspired to surrender the key fort of West Point to the British and became a general of the British army. He led British raids against the Americans in Virginia and Connecticut. He also led an American attack on Quebec but he failed to conquer it. His troops stayed outside the city through the long winter and later returned to Fort Ticonderoga.
He was the president of the colonies' congress. He was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence in large, bold letters so that King George could read it without his glasses. His signature stands out on the original document. He was also one of the men who was warned by the Revere and Dawes that the British were coming to Lexington.
Richard Henry Lee
He was a delegate of the colonies' congress who came from Virginia. He was also a delegate of the Second Continental Congress and was considered one of the greatest political leaders in America. He also proposed a bold solution on June 7, the solution was to be completely free and independent states from Britain. His statement was debated by Congress. Congress later voted for his resolution and 12 colonies supported it. (New York did not vote but later announced its support.)
2nd Continental Congress
This political body assembled for the first time On May 10,1775, declaring independence was a long way off. Among those who were delegates of the assembly were considered great political leaders: John and Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and George Washington. This political assembly began to govern the colonies and authorized the printing of money and the ability to set up post offices with Franklin in charge. It established committees to communicated with the Native Americans and other countries. Most important, the group of political leaders created the Continental Army to fight against Britain in a more organized way than the colonial militias could. The delegates from this assembly sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George the third to assure the king of the colonists desire for peace, and the protection of their rights. King George the third ignored this Petition and prepared for war with the Colonies.
The state from which Patrick Henry came from. It was one of the thirteen original colonies. It was also where the political leader Richard Henry Lee came from. It was the state in which Benedict Arnold led British raids against. Jefferson was also from this state. George Washington came from this state as well. One of the colonies to support the Declaration of Independence (all of them did.)
Writ of Assistance
A legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled. It was what Parliament decided to authorize in 1767 to stop smuggling in the colonies.
The man who helped start the Sons of liberty to protest against the Stamp Act. He was also an informer of how the Boston Massacre was a slaughter of innocent Americans by bloodthirsty redcoats. He led the Boston tea party which involved throwing the chests of tea that was owned by the British royal governor into the Boston Harbor, which caused King George to punish the colonies by passing the Intolerable Acts. He was also a delegate of the colonies' congress. He was one of the men warned by Revere and Dawes that the British were coming to Lexington. He was also a member of the Second Continental Congress and was a great political leader.
This was the act passed by Parliament in 1764 to increase tax revenue. The tax lowered the tax on the molasses imported by the colonists. Grenville hoped that the lower tax would convince colonists to pay the tax instead of smuggling. The act also let officers seize goods from smugglers without going to court. This act that was aimed to control smuggling greatly angered the colonists.
A set of laws passed in 1767 soon after the Stamp Act crisis. In these acts the British leaders tried to avoid some of the problems the Stamp Acts caused. They understood that the colonists would not tolerate internal taxes, so as a result the new tax was applied only to imported goods. The goods that were taxed included basic items- such as glass, tea, paper, and lead.By this time, the colonists were outraged by any taxes Parliament passed. They believed that only their own representatives had the right to levy taxes on them. The colonists responded to these laws by bringing back the boycott, which became even more widespread. Even women took place in the protest against these acts and sometimes called themselves the Daughters of Liberty.
Lexington and Concord
These were two locations at which the British fought the Americans. Lexington was the first stop for the Redcoats, who marched out of Boston. However, the Americans were ready because they were warned by Revere and Dawes. At this first stop for the redcoats, they fought about 70 minutemen. By the end of the fight,eight minutemen lay dead. The British continued to this town for their Second Stop and destroyed the remaining supplies of the American militia. At this town's north bridge, minutemen were waiting for the British troops. From this town to Boston, horseback riders had spread the word of British troop movements. Along the road, many people tried to hide behind anything they could find. As the British marched down the road they fired. They had wounded at least 174 people and killed 73.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence. Some of these colonists remained loyal to the king because they were officeholders who would lose their positions as a result of the Revolution. Others were people who lived isolation and who had not been part of the wave of discontent that turned so many Americans against Britain. Some others from this group expected Britain to win the war and wanted to gain favor with the British.
Olive Branch Petition
This was the delegates' one last offer to Britain for a chance to avoid all-out war. A formal request sent to King George the third in July to assure the king of the colonists' desire for peace. It asked the king to protect the colonists' rights, which Parliament seemed determined to destroy. King George the third refused to receive the Olive Branch Petition. Instead, he prepared for war hiring more than 30,000 German troops to send to America and fight beside his British troops.
what act was passed in 1773?
the tea act
what was the tea act?
it gave the british east india company a monopoly on british tea, they had all control over all tea sold in the colonies
who could not sell dutch tea at competitive prices and why?
colonial merchants and because of the tea act
why did colonists resent the tea tax?
because of the way it limited competitive commerce
what was the boston tea party?
a group of men disguised as native americans boarded the tea ship waiting in the boston harbor and dumped all of the tea into the water
when was the boston tea party?
december 16, 1773
why were the intolerable acts put into action?
in response to the boston tea party, the british government was angry and passed harsh laws
what did the intolerable acts laws do?
1. closed the port of boston
2.increased the powers of the royal governor
3. decreased the power of colonial self-government
4. strengthened the quartering act
what is the quebec act?
this set up new canadian boundaries that blocked the colonists from moving west
what is the first continental congress?
delegates from all colonies except georgia took part in figuring out what to do next
where did the first continental congress take place?
what year did the first continental congress take place?
what did the congress/delegates demand from the parliament?
1. repeal the intolerable acts
2. colonists had a right to tax and govern themselves
3. made training militias a priority
4. called for a new boycott against british goods
when did the congress/delegates plan to meet again if their demands we're not met?
in may 1775
what did Britain do to the demands of the first continental congress?
rejected the demands
the colonists formed militia called what?
what are minutemen?
citizen soldiers who can be ready to fight in a minute
in april what did the governor of Massachusetts send troops to do at concord?
seize the colonists' weapons and capture important colonial leaders
who rode all night to warn the minutemen that that the british were on the march?
paul revere and william dawes
when did paul revere and william dawes ride all night to warn the minutemen that the british were on the march?
april 18, 1775
where did "the shot heard round the world" take place?
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