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Marieb Skin and Body Membranes Chapter 4
Terms in this set (143)
Outer layer of skin, avascular
5 layers: (outermost to innermost layer) of epidermis
-Stratum Lucidum (found only in hands and soles of the feet)
The 3 Epithelial Tissue Membranes
What is Cutaneous Membrane?
Skin; covers the surface of the body.
Lines all cavities that open to the outside of the body. (adapted for absorption and secretion)
Lines the body cavities that are closed to the exterior; rests on a thin layer of areolar tissue; lines the peritoneum, pleura, and pericardium.
Clear fluid secreted by cell that allows organs to slide easily across each other without friction.
Membrane surrounding the lungs.
lines the walls of the cavity surrounding the lungs
Membrane surrounding the heart.
lines the pericardial cavity
the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal wall
Covers the outside of the organs in a cavity.
Tough, fibrous protein that is found in hair and nails.
Strong, stretchy, and functions to bind the body together.
2 layers of the dermis
papillary and reticular layers
Subcutaneous tissue. Adipose and connective tissue.
Cells that produce keratin.
Deepest layer of the epidermis; closest to the dermis; adequately nourished; cells are constantly dividing (mitosis)
A layer of epidermis found ONLY in thick skin of the fingers, palms, and soles of the feet. Function is to offer extra protection
Most superficial layer of the epidermis consisting of dead cells. Function: protects and waterproofs.
A pigment that ranges from yellow to brown to black. Produces by melanocytes; located in the stratum basale.
Epidermal cells that synthesize the pigment melanin, which protect the body from UV light.
Upper dermal region; uneven and has projections from its superior (upper) surface called dermal papillae (fingerprints)
The deepest skin layer and contains irregularly arranged blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors.
Small peg like extensions of the dermis in to the epidermis (known as fingerprints)
Bed sores; caused by constant pressure on an area of skin for a prolonged period of time.
An orange-yellow pigment found in orange and yellow and leafy green vegetables.
Pigment in red blood cells that are found in the dermis. Crimson color of the hemoglobin flushes through transparent cell layers and gives light-skinned individuals a rosy glow.
Pale; may signify anemia, low blood pressure, or impaired blood-flow to the area.
Yellowing of the skin. Usually signifies liver disorder. Excess bile pigments are absorbed into the blood, circulated, and deposited into body tissues.
Black and blue marks on the skin; reveals where blood has escaped circulation and has clotted in the tissue spaces. Clots are called hemotomas.
Reddened skin, due to histamine response
Skin Appendages that Orginates in the epidermis:
Glands that release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts (exocrine glands)
-Sweat glands (sudoriferous)
Oil glands that are found all over the skin except on the palm and soles of the feet. Sebaceous glands release sebum.
Oily substance released from the sebaceous glands; lubricant that keeps the skin soft moist and prevents the hair from becoming brittle.
Sweat (sudoriferous) Glands
Found all over the body.
Two types of sweat glands
Found all over the body; produce sweat via a duct that opes as a pore. Primarily made up of water, salt, vitamin C, & traces of metabolic wastes.
Function: regulate body temperature.
Found ONLY in the axillary (armpit) and genital area of the body; secretes a milky substance that provides nutrients for bacteria living on the skin. Contains fatty acids and proteins.
Made up of keratin; produced by the hair follicle; is a flexible epithelial structure; provides protection and insulation. Each hair consists of:
three layers of hair
Medulla- central core
Cortex- bulky middle
Cuticle- outermost layer
Compound structures; INNER epidermal sheath is composed of epithelial tissues and forms the hair. OUTER dermal sheath is actual dermal connective tissue and provides blood supply to the matrix.
Small bands of smooth muscle that connect to each side of the hair follicle. When these muscles contract, the hair is pulled upright. (Goosebumps)
A scale-like modification of the epidermis.
Tissue damage and cell death caused by intense heat, electricity, UV (sunburn), or chemicals.
Only the epidermis is damaged; heals with no special treatment.
Involves injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis. Skin is reddened, painful, and blisters appear.
third degree burn
Destroys the entire thickness of the skin. Burned areas appear gray-white or blackened
Rule of Nines
Divides the body into 11 areas; each accounting for 9% of the total body surface area. Plus an additional area surrounding he genitals representing 1% of the body surface area.
Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)
An itchy red peeling condition of the skin between the toes resulting from a fungal infection.
An inflammation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
Small fluid-filled blisters that itch and sting, caused by the herpes simplex infection.
Involves pink water-filled raised lesions, usually around the mouth and nose that develop a yellow crust and eventually rupture. Caused by the staphylococcus bacteria.
Chronic condition characterized by the over production of skin cells. Results on reddened epidermal lesions covered with dry scales that itch burn and crack.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Least malignant and most common skin cancer. Stratum basale cells altered so they cannot for keratin and no longer honor the boundary between the epidermis and dermis, Must be surgically removed.
Squamos Cell Carcinoma
Arises from cells in the stratum spinosum and appears as a scaly red papule. Occurs mostly on scalp, ears, dorsum of hands and lower lip. Surgery removal or radiation therapy.
Cancer of the melanocytes. Accounts for 5% of skin cancers, but is the most deadly.
A- Asymmetry: 2 sides do not match
B- Border- Borders are not smooth
C- Colors- Contains different colors
D- Diameter- Spot is bigger than 6mm (pencil eraser)
Nerve endings in the skin responsible for deep pressure
Nerve endings in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to light touch.
flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid
composed of loose areolar connective tissue and contain no epithelial cells.
Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints
Simply means "covering".
Skin's natural Protection Barrier made of Sebum, Sweat, Water and Lipids; protects from Pathogens and regulating enzymatic functions
beneath the skin, containing adipose tissue, connective tissue, vessels, and nerves
These are a result of the papillary layer...
deep pressure receptors
a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
is common during heart failure and severe breathing disorders
Extreme or unnatural paleness
black and blue marks; clotted blood beneath skin
active infection of the sebaceous glands accompanied by pimples on the skin
known as cradle cap
caused by overactivity of sebaceous gland
The glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.
Eccrine Sweat Glands
found in palms, soles of the feet, and forehead
the central core of a hair
free edge of nail
part of the nail plate that extends over the tip of the finger or toe
The portion of a finger or toe covered
by the nail
responsible for nail growth
an opaque white crescent at proximal end of nail
Human Herpesvirus 1
causes cold sores
An inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with certain chemicals or substances; many of these substances are used in cosmetology.
inadequate circulation of blood caused by low blood volume
full thickness burns that extend to muscle or bone. Require surgery and grafting.
caused by HPV
Most common type of cancer. 1 in 5 Americans will get skin cancer
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
arises from the cells of the stratum spinosum
ABCDE, two sides of the pigmented spot or mole do not match
borders of mole are not smooth
Pigmented spot contains area of different
The lesions is larger than 6 millimeters in
A fetus is covered with a downy type of hair called
cheesy substance covering the skin of the fetus
Accumulations of hardened sebum beneath the skin are called whiteheads or:
Male Pattern Baldness
Men becoming obviously bald; genetic
virus that causes blisters such as cold sores and fever blisters
inflammation of dermis. Can be due to exposure to chemical, an allergy, or even a skin irritant
swollen and clogged veins in the extremities
growths on skin caused by HPV transmitted by contact
chronic skin condition that causes itchy, scaly rashes
Bacterial skin infection caused by staphylococcus
testing used to determine if abnormal growths are cancerous
used to detect whether an allergy is causing skin disorder
testing to determine if skin disorder is bacterial, viral, or fungal. done by swabbing area and culturing
the white reaction
caused by the displacement of blood from the small capillaries at the surface of the skin in response to mechanical stimuli
the red reaction
a raised swollen welt due to an allergic reaction caused by a sensitive skin that overproduces histamine in response to stimuli
These membranes line cavities that open to the exterior
these membranes line cavities that do NOT open to the exterior
also known as the hypodermis, layer of fat under the skin
Functions of the subcutaneous tissue
1) anchors to underlying tissue
3) long term energy
function of sweat
1) helps dissipate excess heat
3) inhibits bacteria growth due to acidic nature
4 main functions of skin
protection, thermoregulation, excretion of urea, synthesizes vitamin D
how does the skin offer mechanical protection
acts as a boundary(physical barrier), keratin toughen cells, and receptors alert nervous system in case of possible damage
how does skin offer chemical damage?
has keratinized cells, has pain receptors which alert the nervous system
how does skin protect from bacterial damage?
has an acid mantle(skin secretions are acidic) and phagocytes ingest foreign substances and prevent pathogens from getting past the skin
how does skin offer protection from UV radiation?
melanin offers this type of protection
how does the skin offer protection from thermal damage(heat/cold)?
hot/cold receptors as well as pain receptors in the skin
how does the skin not dry out(dessication)?
outer layer is waterproof and doesn't let water leak in/out
two point threshold
smallest distance at which 2 points can be felt
the ability to determine which portion of the skin has been touched
Why is chemotherapy more effective on cells that divide quickly?
chemotherapy impairs mitosis so if slow dividing/amitotic won't respond to chemotherapy because they are not dividing quickly
MOST common side effects of chemo
2) decreased rBC, WBC(immosuppresed)
3) inflammation of digestive lining(Mucositis)
5 most common routes of drug administration
inhaled, topical, oral, rectal, injection
What factors must be taken into account when prescribing medications
age, sex, ethnicity, weight, prior health issues, other meds being taken
What is dosage form?
how meds are packaged
what are common dosage forms?
capsule, cream, liquid, ointment, patch, aerosol, chews
most common type of cancer
a growth that is encapsulated and does not spread
a growth that is not encapsulated and easily metastasized
least malignant and most common skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
what type of skin cancer shows as a scaly, reddened papule that forms ulcer with raised border
squamous cell carcinoma
what type of skin cancer displays as a waxy bump of nodule
basal cell carcinoma
what type of cancer is the least common but most deadly?
ABCDE criteria...what is A
Asymmetry noted in spot on skin
ABCDE criteria...what is
Border Irregularity...is border not smooth
ABCDE criteria...what is C
Is there more than one color evident?
ABCDE criteria...what is D?
is the diameter greater than 6mm(larger than a pencil eraser)?
ABCDE criteria...what is E?
is the spot Evolving or elevated.
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