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AP Bio Semester 1 Comprehensive Test Objectives
Terms in this set (68)
Describe the 7 characteristics of life.
1. Order- includes having cells, a specific structure, and organized pattern to an organism
2. Energy processing- metabolism
3. Regulation- homeostasis, keeping a constant internal environment
4. Response to the environment- quick or short-term changes
5. Evolutionary Adaption- long-term or changes that occur over time
7. Growth and Development
List and explain the correct levels of biological organization.
1. The Biosphere- all living things on Earth
2. Ecosystems- large areas on Earth with specific living conditions and living organisms (i.e. desert)
3. Communities- the various living organisms with in one area, includes all of the different populations (i.e. all living organisms in Grimes)
4. Populations- one type of living organism in an area (i.e. all of the deer in Grimes)
6. Organs and Organ Systems
Explain scientific theories, how they are developed, and how thy are different than non-scientific theories.
A theory is broader than a hypothesis that is supported by a large amount of evidence. Scientific theories are different than non-scientific in that a scientific theory has been tested many times and a non-scientific theory is just a guess
Describe scientific laws and give examples.
A scientific law describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon and is observed the same way every time. The cause of the law may be unknown but is often explained by theories. (i.e. Newton's second law of motion- F net= (mass) x (acceleration)
Explain how hypotheses, theories, laws, and scientific investigations are related.
Hypotheses, theories, laws, and scientific investigations are related because in a scientific investigation you may be testing a hypothesis that helps you to understand a theory that explains a law
Describe a controlled experiment and the importance of it.
A controlled experiment is when an experimental group is compared with a controlled group
Explain how chemistry relates to biology.
Chemistry relates to biology because chemistry can help to explain how different organisms transfer energy or function (i.e. photosynthesis in plants)
Identify and describe the parts of an atom: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Proton- located in the Nucleus, accounted for in the atomic number and atomic mass, positive charge
Neutron- located in the Nucleus, accounted for in the atomic mass, no electrical charge
Electron- located in the electron cloud, negative charge
Describe the polarity of water and its importance.
The overall charge of a water molecule is unevenly distributed, allowing water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other. As a whole water does not have a charge, the individual atoms have slightly different charges.
Explain how cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension are related.
Cohesion- when hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
Adhesion- an attraction between different substances (i.e. water and plant cell walls)
Surface tension- a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid
Explain the importance of carbon to life.
Living organisms consist mostly of carbon-based compounds; Carbon is unparalleled in its ability for form large, complex, and varied molecules
Describe why carbon is unique in regards to its bonding ability.
Carbon can bond to four other atoms or groups of atoms, making a large variety of molecules possible. This is due to Carbon's valence electrons
Explain the types and variations in carbon chains including length, branching, double bond position, and the presence of rings.
Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. They vary in length, branching, double bond position, and presence of rings
Explain the importance of functional groups when attached to molecules.
They are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions, the functional group gives the whole molecule a specific function, or portions of molecules specific functions
Describe the relationship between monomers and polymers.
A monomer is the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer. A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks
Describe in detail the four types of organic molecules including the following information: the name of the organic molecule, the sub-units (monomers), several functions, examples, and other unique and important information about the organic molecule.
1. Carbohydrates- include sugars and the polymers of sugars (-ose); M: Monosaccharides are single, individual sugar monomers that have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O, classified by the location of the carbonyl group (Aldose and Ketose) and the numbers of carbon in the carbon skeleton; F: Monosaccharides serve as a major fuel and energy source for cells and their carbon skeletons serve as raw material for building other organic molecules, polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen are used for energy when other forms of quick energy have been depleted, polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin are used to physically build parts of cells; E: Glucose (C6H12O6) is the most common monosaccharide, Sucrose is made from glucose and fructose; SC: three main types- Monosaccharides (single, simple sugars; soluble in water; taste sweet), Disaccharides (double sugars joined by a dehydration reaction, also called Glycosidic linkage; not soluble in water), and Polysaccharides (carbohydrate macromolecules; polymers composed of many sugar building blocks; have storage and structural roles; the architecture and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and the positions of its glycosidic linkages)
2. Lipids- M: fats are constructed from glycerol and fatty acid;F: used for energy storage and as structural components of cells, specifically creating the cell membrane-; E: most important lipids are fats (used for energy), phospholipids, and steroids; SC: the one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers, mix poorly if at all with water because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons, phospholipids have a lipid bilayer
3. Proteins- Polypeptides are unbranched polymers built form these amino acids, a protein consists of one or more polypeptides; M: constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids; E: Enzymatic (selective acceleration of chemical reactions), Storage (storage of amino acids), Defensive (Protection against disease), Transport (Transport of substances), Hormonal (Coordination of an organism's activities), Receptor (response of cell to chemical stimuli), Contractile and motor (movement), Structural (support); F: some speed up chemical reactions, others functions include defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, or structural support; SC: account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells, linked by covalent bonds called peptide bonds, the shape of the protein determines its function, denaturization can occur, chaperonins assist in the folding of proteins
4. Nucleic Acid- M: nucleotides (can be broken down into 3 smaller components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups); F: store, transmit, and help express hereditary information (DNA makes RNA and RNA makes proteins); E: DNA and RNA; SC: 4 bases in both DNA and RNA, DNA is connected on antiparallel double helixes, RNA is single-stranded
Describe the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
1. They both have vesicles
2. They both have vacuoles
3. They both have ribosomes
4. They have similar basic metabolisms
1. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles while prokaryotic cells do not
2. Prokaryotic cells do not have mitochondria, unlike eukaryotes
3. The structure of chromosome DNA differ between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
4. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus
Explain the reason that cells are microscopic.
Metabolic requirements put a limit on the size of cells. The surface area to volume ratio is important because it allows sufficient movement of nutrients, molecules, and waste products coming into and out of a cell
Describe the functions and characteristics of the following organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, rough and smooth ER, golgi body, cytosol, ribosomes, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts, cell wall, cell membrane, lysosome, peroxisome, and centrioles.
Nucleus- where DNA is kept and RNA is transcribed
Nucleolus- site of ribosome formation; inside of the nucleus
ER- transports proteins made by the ribosomes; connected to the nuclear envelope; smooth is ribosome free and rough has ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus- modifies, packages, and manufactures macromolecules through vesicles
Cytosol- the semifluid portion of the cytoplasm; held by and organelle
Ribosomes- site of protein synthesis; free-floating and connected to the ER
Mitochondria- site of cellular respiration
Vacuoles- intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products
Chloroplasts- site of photosynthesis in plant cells; green color from cholophyl
Cell Wall- cellulose outer layer of the cell protecting it and giving the cell a rectangular shape
Cell Membrane- membrane protecting and supporting the cell; selectively permeable
Lysosome- digests waste material and food within the cell
Peroxisome- oxidative organelles; produce Hydrogen Peroxide and convert it to water
Centrioles- separate chromosome pairs during mitosis
Label a diagram of an animal and plant cell.
*on label worksheet
Describe the similarities and differences between animal and plant cells.
1. They have a nucleus
2. They have flagella
3. They have a cell membrane
4. They are eukaryotic
1. Plant cells have cell walls
2. Animal cells are round while plant cells are rectangular
3. Animal cells may have one or more small vacuoles while plant cells have one large vacuole
4. Plant Cells have chloroplasts and chlorophyl
Describe the various types of proteins found in the lipid bilayer and their functions.
Peripheral Proteins- bound to the surface of the membrane
Integral Proteins- Penetrate the hydrophobic core
Transmembrane Proteins- Integral proteins that span the length of the membrane
Functions- transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
Describe selective permeability and its importance.
The plasma membrane exhibits selective permeability, allowing some substances to cross it more easily than others
Explain types of passive transport and how they work.
Diffusion- molecules in a higher concentration will spread to areas of lower concentration; as many molecules cross the membrane in one direction as the other
Osmosis- water diffuses across a membrane from the region of lower solute concentration to the region of higher solute concentration until the solute concentration is equal on both sides
Compare and contrast passive transport and facilitated diffusion.
Passive Transport- The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane without energy expended, high concentration to low concentration
Facilitated Diffusion- Transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across the plasma membrane
Similarities- high concentration to low concentration
Explain how active transport works.
Active transport moves substances against the concentration gradient, using energy in the form of ATP; it's performed by specific proteins embedded in the membrane
Describe the importance of metabolism to life.
An organism's metabolism transforms matter and energy, and is subject to the laws of thermodynamics. It is an emergent property of life that arises from orderly interactions between molecules
Compare and contrast anabolic and catabolic pathways.Compare and contrast anabolic and catabolic pathways.
Anabolic- consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones; synthesis of protein
Catabolic- release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds; cellular respiration
Similarities- both metabolic pathways
Explain the relationship between free energy, exergonic and endergonic reactions, and anabolic and catabolic pathways in metabolism.
Exergonic reactions occur in catabolic pathways and release free energy. Endergonic reactions occur in anabolic pathways and absorb free energy
Explain the ways ATP is used in the body and how it is used.
The hydrolysis of ATP powers mechanical, transport, and chemical work. ATP releases energy when the bonds between the second and third phosphate group are broken apart by hydrolysis. This release of energy comes from the chemical change to a state of lower free energy
Describe the characteristics of enzymes and catalysts and how they function in metabolism.
Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers. A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. An enzyme is a catalytic protein
Analyze a graph showing a chemical reaction to determine how much activation energy is needed, what type of reaction it is (exergonic or endergonic), and how enzymes affect the reaction.
*In chapter 8 notes
Write and explain the overall chemical reaction for cellular respiration, including how much ATP is made during each step.
C6H12O6 (becomes oxidized) + 6 02 (becomes reduced) --> 6 CO2 (becomes oxidized) + 6 H2O (becomes reduced)+ Energy
A net of 2 ATP are made in Glycolysis (4 are made, 2 are lost); 0 are produces in the Citric Acid Cycle; 30-32 are made in the Electron Transport Chain (some electrons may fall of and are unable to be used)
Explain the steps of glycolysis including the beginning reactant, the ending product, and a general understanding of the steps in between to get those molecules.
Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. Glucose is the original product for Glycolysis. The products of glucose are 2 molecules of pyruvate and 2 molecules of H2O. 4 ATP are formed and 2 of them are used making a net of 2 ATP. 2 NAD+ + 4 e- + 4 H+ have the products 2 NADH + 2 H+. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and has two major phases: the energy investment phase and the energy payoff phase. Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. In the energy investment phase: Glucose enters and 2 ATP are used to make 2 ADP + 2 phosphate groups. In the energy payoff phase: 4 ADP + 4 phosphate groups make 4 ATP; the 2 NAD+, plus 4 e- + H+ produces 2 NADH + 2H+
Explain the steps of the citric acid cycle including how acetyl CoA is formed, the beginning and ending molecule of the cycle, and what molecules are generated in the cycle.
The citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion (in eukaryotic cells) where the oxidation of glucose is completed. Before the citric acid cycle can begin, pyruvate must be converted to acetyl CoA , which links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle. This step is carried out by a multi enzyme complex that catalyzes three reactions. The beginning reactant is Acetyl CoA. The product is 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2 per turn. The acetyl group of acetyl CoA joins the cycle by combining with oxaloacetate, forming citrate. The next seven steps decompose the citrate back to oxaloacetate. The NADH and FADH2 produced by the cycle relay electrons extracted from food to the electron transport chain, so they can act as an electron taxi to move the electrons to the electron transport chain.
Explain oxidative phosphorylation including the two steps of it: the electron transport change and chemiosmosis.
During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis. NADH and FADH2 account for most of the energy extracted from food. These two electron carriers donate electrons to the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. The carriers in the electron transport chain alternate between reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons. Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain and are finally passed to O2, forming H2O. Cytochromes are an iron-containing protein that pass electrons through the electron transport chain. Chemiosmosis is the energy-coupling mechanism. Electron transfer in the electron transport chain causes proteins to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. H+ then moves back across the membrane, passing through the protein complex ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the exergonic flow of H+ to drive phosphorylation of ATP (adding a phosphate group to ADP making ATP)
Compare and contrast cellular respiration and fermentation.
Cellular Respiration- uses oxygen to make ATP through the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain
Fermentation- works in the absence of oxygen in the form of alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation
Compare and contrast autotrophs and heterotrophs.
Autotrophs- sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms; producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic molecules; almost all plants are photoautotrophs, using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules
Heterotrophs- obtain their organic material from other organisms; consumers of the biosphere; almost all heterotrophs, including humans, depend on photoautotrophs for food and O2
Write and explain the overall chemical reaction for photosynthesis.
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
Energy from the sun begins the splitting of carbon dioxide and water into a sugar molecule, water and oxygen. Sugar is formed from CO2 using ATP and NADPH
Explain the importance of carbon fixation to the growth of plants.
The process whereby inorganic carbon is converted into organic carbon-containing molecules. Without organic carbon-containing molecules there would be no life as we know it since all organic molecules contain carbon. It provides us with food through the photosynthesis of sugars in plants which as we all know provide most higher animals with food either directly or via other animals which become prey to higher ones on the food chain
Explain how the light reactions occur during photosynthesis including having a general understanding of the way the photosystems work, how they relate to electron transport chains, and the difference between linear and cyclic electron flow.
Light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH. The thylakoids of chloroplasts transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH molecules. Pigments are substances that absorb visible light. Leaves appear green because chlorophyll reflects and transmits green light.
Explain how the Calvin cycle works including the three phases and the carbohydrate that is produced through the cycle.
The cycle builds sugar from similar molecules by using ATP and the reducing power of electrons carried by NADPH. Carbon enters the cycle as CO2 and leaves as a sugar (G3P). For a net synthesis of 1 G3P, the cycle must take place three times, fixing 3 molecules of CO2. 3 Phases: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)
Explain the purpose or importance of cell communication.
Cell-to-cell communication is essential to multicellular organisms. Cells can signal to each other and interpret the signals they receive from other cells and the environment
Compare and contrast local and long-distance signaling.
In both local and long-distance signaling, only specific target cells recognize and respond to a given signaling molecule. Local regulators and hormones are both physical molecules in the cell. Local signaling includes Paracrine signaling (when animal cells communicate using secreted messenger molecules that travel only short distances) and Synaptic Signaling (occurs in the animal nervous system when a neurotransmitter is released in response to an electric signal). Long-distance signaling includes Hormonal signaling (celled endocrine signaling in animals, specialized cells release hormones, which then travel to target cells via the circulatory system)
Describe the general signal transduction pathway and its purpose.
The signal transduction pathway is a series of steps by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a cellular response. Cell signaling occurs in 3 stages: reception (the cell receiving the message), transduction (the cell processing the message), and response (the cell answering/reacting to the message). Signal transduction pathways occur in the transduction stage
Describe apoptosis and its importance.
Give some examples of when apoptosis occurs.
Describe how action potentials are created and messages are sent by cells.
Describe the importance and function of they myelin sheath and the type of conduction it creates.
Explain the purpose of the cell cycle.
The cell cycle is the life of a cell from formation to its own division
Describe the end results of the cell cycle.
The cell cycle ends when that cell divides into two new cells
Name the stages of the cell cycle and describe the basics of what occurs in each stage.
Interphase- cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division
Mitotic phase- mitosis and cytokinesis
Describe the steps of interphase and mitosis.
G1 Phase- the first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis occurs
S Phase- the synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated
G2 Phase- the second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
Prophase- the chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes visible with a light microscope, the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the nucleolus disappears but the nucleus remain intact
Prometaphase- the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
Metaphase- the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate
Anaphase- the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
Telophase- daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
Compare and contrast cell division in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Eukaryotes- cells divide by mitosis and cytokinesis, mitosis deals with the splitting of the nucleus, which prokaryotes do not have
Prokaryotes- cells divide by binary fission because prokaryotes have very little DNA that is not held within a nucleus. To replicate DNA, an origin of replication is started. The cell simply splits in half
Similarities- somatic cells both divide
Name and describe each step of meiosis.
Interphase- chromosomes duplicate, the resulting sister chromatids are closely associated along their lengths
Prophase I- each chromosome pairs with its homolog, called synapsis, and the process of crossing over occurs
Metaphase I- pairs of homologs line up at the metaphase plate, with one chromosome facing each pole. Microtubules from one pole are attached to the kinetochore of one chromosome of each tetrad, which is a group of four chromatids from a pair of chromosomes. Microtubules from the other pole are attached to the kinetochore of the other chromosome
Anaphase I- pairs of homologous chromosomes separate. One chromosome of each pair moves toward opposite poles, guided by the spindle apparatus. Sister chromatids remain attached at the centromere and move as one unit toward the pole
Telophase I and cytokinesis- each half of the cell has a haploid set of chromosomes; each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids. Cytokinesis usually occurs simultaneously, forming two haploid daughter cells. In animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms; in plant cells, a cell plate forms.
Prophase II- a spindle apparatus forms. Chromosomes move toward the metaphase plate
Metaphase II- the sister chromatids are arranged at the metaphase plate. Because of crossing over in meiosis I, the two sister chromatids of each chromosome are no longer genetically identical. The kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to microtubules extending from opposite poles
Anaphase II- The sister chromatids separate. The sister chromatids of each chromosome now move as two newly individual chromosomes toward opposite poles
Telophase II and cytokinesis- the chromosomes arrive at opposite poles. Nuclei form, and the chromosomes begin decondensing. Cytokinesis separates the cytoplasm. At the end of meiosis there are four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of unreplicated chromosomes
Campare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
1 cell to 2 cells
Starts as diploid and ends as diploid
Ends with identical cells
Occurs in somatic cells
No crossing over
1 cell to 4 cells
Starts as diploid ends as haploid
End with non-identical cells
Occurs to create gametes
Complete single trait and double trait Punnett Squares if given descriptions of the parents, giving the results for F1 and F2 Generation.
*Punnett Square Practice Problems
Explain the differences between non-Mendelian inheritance patterns including complete dominance, codominance, and incomplete dominance. Give examples of each.
Describe other unique inheritance patterns including mutliple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and polygenic inheritance and give examples of each.
Correctly create pedigrees if given a family's information.
Explain what linked genes are and how they affect inheritance.
Describe the relationship between genetic recombination and linkage.
Explain the structure of DNA including the sub-unit, components, shape, and the way bases match up.
Components- sugar, nitrogenous base, and phosphate group
Shape- double helix
Way bases match up- Adenine and Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
Explain the process of DNA replication including where it begins and how it moves in two directions down the DNA strand, which direction replication moves (5' to 3'), and the major differences between the two.
Replication begins at particular sites called origins of replication, where the two DNA strands are separated, opening up a replication "bubble". Replication proceeds in both directions from each origin, until the entire molecule is copied. At the end of each replication bubble is a replication fork (a Y-shaped region where new DNA strands are elongating. Helicases untwist the double helix at the replication forks. Single-strand binding proteins bind to and stabilize single-stranded DNA. Topoisomerase corrects overwinding ahead of replication forks by breaking, swiveling, and rejoining DNA strands. DNA polymerases ad nucleotides to an existing 3' end. Primase can start an RNA chain from scratch and adds RNA nucleotides one at a time using parental DNA as a template. The 3' end serves as the starting point for the new DNA strand. DNA polymerases only add nucleotides to the free 3' end of a growing strand; therefore, a new DNA strand can elongate only in the 5' to 3' direction. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA using information in DNA, producing mRNA. Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide, using information in the mRNA, produced in the ribosome
Describe the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA.
1. Both DNA and RNA use Adenine, Cytosine, and Guanine
2. They are both composed of repeating units of nucleotides
3. RNA and DNA are both nucleic acids and polymers
4. They are both made with the sugar ribose
1. Adenine is paired with Thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA
2. DNA is double-stranded and RNA is single-stranded
3. RNA can move in and out of the nucleus while DNA is bound to the nucleus
4. RNA has one more hydroxyl combination than DNA
If given a DNA strand, Accurately transcribe and translate it.
* Base pairing practice sheet
Explain the process of transcription in detail.
Transcription is the synthesis of RNA using information in DNA. Transcription produces mRNA. It is the first stage of gene expression. RNA synthesis is catalyzed by RNA polymerase, which pries the DNA strands apart and joins together the RNA nucleotides. The RNA is complementary of the DNA template strand. DNA polymerase does not need a primer. RNA synthesis follows the same base-pairing rules as DNA, except that uracil substitutes for thymine. The DNA sequence where DNA polymerase attaches is called the promoter. The sequence signaling the end is called the terminator. The stretch of DNA that is transcribed is called the transcription unit.
Explain the process of translation in detail.
Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide, using information in the mRNA. Ribosomes are the site of translation.
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