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ARCH 250 TEST FOUR
Terms in this set (90)
Why are the designs of Boullée and Ledoux considered to express revolutionary or visionary forms of Neoclassicism? What are some of the primary forms that appear in their designs?
-Revolutionary / Visionary Neoclassicism
1780 Architecture, Essai sur l'art Architecture = expressive picture, visual poetry.
Most powerful shapes were pyramid, cube, cylinder, cone and sphere => "Geometric Neoclassicism"
How does Boulée's design (shape, concept) for Sir Isaac Newton's cenotaph reflect French rationalism?
-Hypothetical project designed by Boullée to honor Newton's discoveries in celestial mechanics.
-Sphere = perfect form of the Picturesque/ Sublime
-I conceive the idea of surrounding thee with thy discovery, and thus, somehow, surrounding thee with thyself."
Who are the Neo-Palladians and what motivated them to move away from the earlier style of Christopher Wren?
They wished to return to the principles of classical architecture promoted by Palladio because of its simplicity.
They wanted to break away from current political leaders.
What building inspired Lord Burlington when he designed his home, Chiswick House? What about it is new or innovative?
It was inspired by Palladio's Villa Rotunda in Vicenza, Italy.
Central Pediment. Pavilions off to the south. Octagonal drum on which the dome is set. Chimneys sticking out at both sides. Rustication of stone. The shape of the windows is based upon Palladio's design.....
-Half round windows are called thermal windows---------->Ancient Roman examples
What Palladian characteristics are seen on the exterior of Holkham Hall?
Tripartite design, rustication, temple facade. House is raised.
How is the interior designed to be a 'temple of the arts'? What ancient buildings does it imitate? Holkham Hall
Interior: Ornate wallpaper, original paintings on the walls.
It imitates Roman buildings. Colonnade is a copy of the temple of fortuna virilis in Rome. Ceiling imitates the Patheon.
What are some of the characteristics of Horace Walpole's house Strawberry Hill?
-Built by Horace Walpole with the help of a group of friends, including amateur architects, as his own Gothic castle and intended to be a 'plaything house'. The style is called Georgian Gothic revival (also Gothick), and served as a source of inspiration for the first gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto.
-The Library bookcases are based on an illustration of the Gothic doorways from Old St. Paul's in London.
-The Holbein Room (named for the sketches on display).
The decoration around the fireplace is a copy of the tomb of Archbishop Wareham in Westminster Abbey.
The purple wall paper is original.
-The ceiling is based upon the design of a round window from Old St. Paul's cathedral in London.
What are some of the medieval monuments it deliberately imitates? (Strawberry Hill)
Wanted to build his own gothic castle. "Gothic Revival".
Rooms are inspired by Old St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
The gallery: Ceiling imitates the perpendicular style pendant vault.
Describe the types of buildings and their arrangement in Ledoux's plan for the town of Chaux. What does this reveal about Neo-Classical architecture in France, the Age of Enlightenment, and the effect of 18th century industrialization?
-Planned industrial community (Saltworks) with director's house at center, workers' houses around the perimeter, and buildings for the production of salt across diameter. Areas beyond the houses include gardens, recreational facilities, communal buildings = Utopian city.
Buildings should be recognizable for what they were = 'Speaking Architecture'
How does the gatehouse combine Neo-classical architecture and decorative details that relate to salt production? (Saline Royale de Chaux)
-The façade has a monumental Doric colonnade, entablature and cornice.
-The actual entrance is designed to look like a salt mine.
What do we know about Pierre Charles L'Enfant's background and training? How does his plan for the city of Washington D.C. reflect ideas from the European Baroque, specifically the design of Versailles in France?
-Pierre "Peter" Charles L'Enfant was a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C., the L'Enfant Plan.
-Grew up in Versailles.
-Designed the plan for the city of Washington D.C.
-L'Enfant went beyond a simple survey and envisioned a city where important buildings would occupy strategic places based on changes in elevation and the contours of waterways.
What are some of the building types that Jefferson designed for the campus? How do the buildings adapt the classical orders and ancient Roman buildings to serve the needs of the university? (University of Virginia campus)
Buildings: Library, Student rooms, lecture halls and faculty residences.
Library: Inspired by the Pantheon.
Pavilion X: Doric Order
Pavilion VII: Utilized Roman Arches.
What are some of the ancient Roman buildings that served as prototypes for these buildings? (University of Virginia campus)
Why did people like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson believe that the Neoclassical style of architecture was appropriate for the capitol building of the United States?
Neoclassical: Greek Style
Greeks invented democracy.
Who was the first architect of the capitol building?
What do we know about Benjamin Henry Latrobe's training and career?
-Born in England, member of Freemasons.
- In 1796 he emigrated to the United States. Recognized as the first professionally trained architect to practice in the United States.
-Latrobe participated in the remodeling:
House and Senate Chambers rebuilt using Greek orders, Supreme Court chamber rebuilt with a semi-dome ceiling and archway supported by Doric columns.
What did Latrobe contribute to the United States Capitol Building?
Latrobe continued work on Thornton's design, but enlarged the porch. He also designed the House and Senate chambers.
Why did Schinkel choose to use the Classical orders in his buildings?
-Schinkel saw architecture as a means to foster civic consciousness and saw polis-driven Greek Classicism as its ideal symbolic language. He succeeded in uniting the architectural forms of fortification and civic splendor.
How was Schinkel's design and decoration of the Neue Wache suited to its original purpose? What is its function today, and how does the architecture and decoration contribute to that purpose?
Doric portico, figures of winged victories (nikai) on frieze. Pediment shows allegorical representations of Battle, Victory, Flight, and Defeat. Corners meant to evoke a Roman tower.
- Today it is dedicated to the memory of all victims of war and dictatorship
-Interior holds eternal flame and granite slab over the ashes of an unknown soldier, a resistance fighter, and a concentration camp prisoner.
Who paid for the construction of this building? (Altes Museum)
Friedrich Wilhelm III.
What type of building is this and why is this historically significant? (Altes Museum)
First public art museum in Europe, establishes connection between Neo- classical architecture and the fine arts in modern Europe.
What are some of the classical design elements found in the Altes Museum? How effective are they for the purpose of the building?
-Wall imitates painting from Roman houses
-Interior rotunda is reference to the ancient Roman temple, the Pantheon, ca. 125
What role does the École des Beaux-Arts and the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures play in 19th century architectural design in France and elsewhere? Who are some of famous graduates from each school?
-Combined school of painting, architecture, and sculpture.
- Gustave Eiffel- Manufacture
What was Joseph Paxton's training and background? How did he earn the commission to build the exhibition hall in 1851?
English horticulturalist (garden designer), and architect.
-Paxton submitted a design for the Great Exhibition of London in 1851.
What are some of the innovations in material and construction introduced by Braxton's 'Crystal Palace' or Great Exhibition Hall ?
Modular design using mass-produced materials -Iron and glass. Built in 8 months. Glass allowed natural light to come in.
-Choice between structure and ornamentation. Ornamentation becomes a secondary feature.
What happened to this building after the Great Exhibition had closed?
-At the close of the Great Exhibition in 1852, the 'Crystal Palace' was dismantled and rebuilt (with gardens) at Sydenham. It was destroyed by a fire in 1936.
Where did Labrouste go to school?
-He attended the Ecole des Beaux Arts
Describe the appearance of the exterior of this building and explain what other types of buildings it draws upon. (Biblioteque St. Genevieve)
-Exterior façade draws inspiration from Renaissance palazzo (built of stone, inspired by Classical architecture).
How does the interior combine Renaissance ideals with new materials such as cast iron? (Bibliothèque)
-Interior reading room inspired by barrel vault, but built with plaster and wire vaults resting on cast-iron semi-circular arches and columns.
Where was Garnier trained as an architect?
Ecole de Beaux Arts.
How does the Paris Opéra exemplify the Beaux-Arts style?
-Elaborate rooflines with figural sculpture silhouetted against sky
-Pairs of colossal columns
-Projecting and receding elements
-Decorative swags and garlands
Describe Gustave Eiffel's area of training and technical expertise. What types of structures did he build, what materials did he use, and what are some of his greatest innovations?
-French engineer, trained at the École Central des Arts et Manufactures.
-Early commission (age 26) included construction of an iron railway bridge. Creates a company to build bridges and viaducts.
Why was the 'Eiffel Tower' built in Paris at this time?
-1886 French Ministry of Trade held a competition to build 'a new world wonder', an iron tower to symbolize technological progress and industrial development.
How long did it take to build and what materials and processes contributed to its rapid construction? (Eiffel Tower)
-1010 feet tall, built of iron with masonry foundations, 15,000 pieces of iron; 1,050, 846 rivets.
Components prefabricated then assembled on site with four pivoting cranes.
Construction took 26 months with 250 workmen.
What were Pugin's views on Gothic (medieval) architecture, especially as compared to Renaissance or Neoclassical architecture?
Faith and Gothic go by hand by hand. Spirituality inspires his designs. Middle Ages and Gothic architecture = greater spirituality and craftsmanship.
Who was Eugène Viollet-Le-Duc and what role did he play in the Gothic Revival in France?
-Architect and writer known for his restoration of medieval monuments, especially those damaged during the French Revolution.
-Entretiens sur l'Architecture (Discourses on Architecture) stressed the importance of rationality in design.
Interested in Gothic as source of "structural rationalism"
• Every form has a reason
• Reason reflected in form
• Form and structural logic (function) are one.
-Restored Notre Dame Cathedral
Who was John Ruskin and what role did he play in defining 19th century opposition to the Industrial Revolution?
-Ruskin lived in England from 1819-1900.
-Art critic, writer, social commentator.
-Opposed industrial revolution and technological progress on the grounds that they lead to a decline of social values and artistic quality.
-Creator of the Arts and Crafts movement. Promoted craftsmanship over industrial production.
Why was it necessary to rebuild the Houses of Parliament in London? How does the plan of the building reflect the government of Great Britain?
October 16, 1834- fire destroyed the Houses of Parliament. The government held a competition for a new building to be designed in either Gothic or Elizabethan style. New design built around the surviving Westminister Hall and other structures.
Explain how Sir Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin collaborated to create this building (who did what?). (Houses of Parliament)
The plan is by Barry. Desgined to reflect the balance of powers in the British parliament (House of the Lords, House of Commons).
Decorated by Pugin.
Who was William Morris and what was his role in the Arts and Crafts Movement?
Follower of Ruskin.
-Founded a company that employed craftsmen to make household objects and furnishings by hand.
-Interested in promoting craftsmanship
-Quality of life for the working class.
-Responsibility of arch. and design to contribute to the well-being of society,
How do the outside and inside of Red House exemplify William Morris's ideas about craftsmanship and the Arts and Crafts movement?
-Emphasis on local materials (brick, slate roof) and traditional building forms.
-The interior was designed by Morris and his friends.
-Emphasis on natural materials, artistry, and craftsmanship.
-Medieval paintings on the wall of the drawing room.
Describe the materials and techniques used to build the Turbine Building at the Menier Factory.
-Wrought-iron frame with brickwork skin.
The framework is exposed on the surface of the building.
Wrought-iron frame (exterior lattice girders) with brickwork skin. Interior had cast-iron columns.
Integration of structure and decoration seen in polychrome brickwork.
Decorative pattern of cacao tree and M for Menier in the circular panels.
How does this building reflect Viollet-le-Duc's ideas about integrating structure, function, and decoration? (Menier Factory)
-The Turbine Building, built over the Marne River, uses water to drive the turbines that produce power for the factory.
-Integration of structure and decoration seen in polychrome brickwork.
Decorative pattern of cacao tree and M for Menier in the circular panels.
What purpose does this factory complex serve today? (Menier Factory)
-Today it serves as the headquarters of Nestle.
How does the design of the Haughwout Department Store reflect Renaissance architecture? How do the materials reflect the industrial developments of the 19th century?
-Façade is designed to look like Renaissance palazzo.
-Built of mass-produced cast iron building elements. Deign repeats same elements over and over to achieve desired size.
What did Elisha Otis's invent and install in this building? How did it contribute to the development of tall buildings?(E. V. Haughwout Department Store)
-Earliest steam-driven passenger elevator with a safety brake was invented by Elisha Graves Otis in 1852 and first installed in this building.
-It made it easier for people to access taller buildings.
What are some of the materials and techniques used to build the Reliance Building?
-Internal steel skeleton, load carried by truss work columns
-Factory-assembled two-story steel columns made it possible to erect the top ten stories in fifteen days.
What are some of the challenges faced by their architects? What were some of their innovations in design and structure that made their buildings a success? (Reliance Building)
-Height of the buildings.
What purpose does this building serve today? (Reliance Building)
-It is a hotel.
What type of building is this? What sorts of activities took place here? How did this contribute to its financial success? (Auditorium Building)
-This is a theater. People would go for entertainment.
Explain what Adler and Sullivan each contributed to their partnership. How does this building exemplify the Chicago School and its approach to design? (Auditorium Building)
-Adler created the plan while Sullivan was in charge of the decoration.
How does the façade of Sullivan's buildings connect their form and function?(Auditorium Building)
What style did Sullivan use for architectural decoration inside?(Auditorium Building)
-Sullivan was responsible for the decoration. His ornamental style uses natural plant forms and belongs to the style of Art Nouveau.
What role did Burnham and Root play in the development of the Columbian Exposition?
-Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root were consulting architects
What did Burnham think the legacy of the fair should be?(Chicago World's Fair (Columbian Exposition))
-The legacy of the fair should be "livable cities"
What style was used for the main buildings in the "Court of Honor" at the Columbian Exposition?
-The Beaux-Arts traditions are seen in the buildings of the Court of Honor, with inspiration from Greece, Rome, and the Renaissance. Cornice height of all buildings is equal, creates uniform appearance but allows for creative design
What materials were used in their construction and how did this contribute to the speed with which they were built? What contributed to the uniform appearance of the buildings and why was it called the 'White City'?(Chicago World's Fair (Columbian Exposition))
-Buildings were made to be temporary and were built with iron and timber frames. The outer surface was made out of "staff", a mixture of plaster, cement, and jute fibers. Painted white = "White City"
How did architectural design and the architects of the Columbian Exposition influence public architecture across the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century?
-Shaped expectations of what a fair should include (midway, halls to display the arts, buildings dedicated to showcasing inventions)
-Introduced millions of people to architectural styles from around the world and demonstrated how planning could shape modern cities.
-The Classical and Beaux-Arts architecture influenced the design and construction of public buildings in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Where did Richard Morris Hunt study architecture and how does this influence his buildings?
-Hunt had been trained at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
Describe the architectural elements on façade of this building. (Admin Building)
-Pairs of colossal columns.
-Projecting and receding elements.
-Emphasis on corners
How does this building compare to Charles Garnier's Opera House in Paris?(Administration Building)
The facades have similar elements.
How do the early buildings of McKim, Mead and White express the principles of the Beaux-Arts tradition?
-The Boston Public Library was the first large free municipal library in the United States. Charles Follen McKim referred to this as his "palace for the people."
In 1986, the National Park Service designated the McKim Building a National Historic Landmark citing it as "the first outstanding example of Renaissance Beaux-Arts Classicism in America."
What type of building is this and what does it symbolize about the cultural heritage of this city?(Boston Public Library)
-It is a library.
Explain why the National Park Service designated the Boston Public Library a National Historic Landmark citing it as "the first outstanding example of Renaissance Beaux-Arts Classicism in America."
-Within the McKim Building are fine murals series, fine collections of rare books and manuscripts, maps, and prints, and splendid gallery space for displaying the numerous treasures assembled over the past 160 years.
How does it compare to Henri Labrouste's Bibliotheque Ste.-Geneviève in Paris?(Boston Public Library)
-Both are libraries.
-Both look like a Renaissance Palazzo.
-Facade has Rustication and round arches.
Chiswick House date, location
london england 1725-1729 William kent
holkham hall date, location
Norflolk England 1734 william kent
Strawberry hill date, location
Twickenham, England 1748 Horace Walpole
Saline Royale de Chaux (Royal saltworks) date, location
France 1775-1779 Claude Nicholas Ledoux
University of Virginia campus date location
Charlottesville, Virginia 1817-1826 Thomas Jefferson
United States Capitol Building date
1793-1866 William Thornton and Benjamin Latrobe
Neue Wache date and location
Berlin, Prussia 1817-1818 Schinkel
Altesmuseum date and location
Berlin Prussia 1823-1828 Schinkel
Great Exhibition Hall or'Crystal Palace' date and location
London England 1851 Joseph Paxton
Bibliothèque Ste. Genevieve date and location
Paris 1824-1850 Henri Labrouste
L'Opéra date and location
Paris, France 1861-1875 Garnier
Eiffel Tower date and location
Paris 1889 Gustave Eiffel
Houses of Parliament date and location
london, England 1836-1868 Charles Barry and A.W.N Pugin
Red House date and location
Bexley Heath, England, 1859-1860 Philip Webb
Menier Factory date and location
1871-1872, Jules Saunier
E. V. Haughwout Department Store date and location
New York, 1856-1857 Daniel Badger and John P Gaynor
Reliance Building date and location
Chicago 1894-1895 Burnam and Root and Atwood
Auditorium Building date and location
Chicago, IL, 1886-1890 Adler and Sullivan
Administration Building date and location
Chicago, IL 1893, Richard Morris
Boston Public Library date and location
Boston, MA, 1887-1895 Mckim and mead and white
based on the symmetry, perspective and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans
is characterized by grandeur of scale, simplicity of geometric forms, Greek—especially Doric—or Roman detail, dramatic use of columns, and a preference for blank walls
is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. Wk 13 tuesday Study pic
École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures
a French university-level institution (grande école) in the field of engineering.
Extensive use of glass on facades, large central picture window framed by double-hung sashes
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