Cultural Anthropology Final (12/18/14)- Non-Book Terms
Terms in this set (68)
4 subfields of anthropology
Biological Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, and Archaeology Anthropology
Lewis Henry Morgan-
Unilineal cultural evolution was a theory of cultural difference, popular in the late 19th century.
Savagery (hunting-gathering, promiscuity)
Barbarism (agriculture, pairing)
Civilization (writing, monogamy)
modern concept of culture
Culture is a set of learned beliefs, attitudes, behaviors that humans acquire as members of society
Most human differences are the result of social learning culture is not genetically programmed.
A common humanity exists. People create and adopt new traits and share similar kinds of institutions that meet universal human needs
Everything is connected/ Cannot exist independently
Morgan said the institution of family evolved through stages, from early promiscuity to group marriage to polygyny and, finally, monogamy.
Savagery (hunting-gathering, promiscuity)
Barbarism (agriculture, pairing)
Civilization (writing, monogamy)
Was the "Father" of American Anthropology
Boas rejected idea that cultures change according to a single sequence of stages and progressive evolution. He also rejected universal models based on diffusion of culture. Culture, he said, is a patchwork quilt of borrowed practices and artifacts.
All cultural traits fulfill the basic needs of individuals in society. Culture is a response to various individual needs, including the need for order and certainty.
Credited with inventing modern ethnographic field methods.
is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology, and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.
is behavior exhibited by humans (and, some would argue, by other species as well, though to a much lesser degree) that is extrasomatic or extragenetic, in other words, learned.
That means what you know about that particular country or community's social and religious beliefs and practices.
The culture will define many things about that particular group, like their religious beliefs, their day to day norms about accepting or not accepting certain things, the values that group attaches to various issues of life, their mythology and their political beliefs and systems. Every aspect of life is touched and covered by the culture of a particular society or group of people.
the purpose of theory
Theory is a formal description of some phenomenon that explains how it works in terms of cause and effect.
anthropological research methods
Anthropology uses ethnographic field methods to discover and describe culture.
These methods were invented by anthropologists in the early 20th c.
They learn from people, avoid making assumptions and try to understand insider's or "native" point of view.
definition of the field site or community
entry into field site
research as a social relationship
departure from field site
An insider view
An outsider view
the principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture.
race science/bio determinism
By the early 20th century, race was solidified as a way to explain differences between groups of people.
Races were thought to be distinct biological sub-populations—or even subspecies—of humans/is the interpretation of humans and human life from a strictly biological point of view, and it is closely related to genetic determinism.
the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics.
It was called philology in 19th c. and then historical linguistics by early 20th c.
Concerned with diachronic questions..
He distinguished between langue and parole and said linguists should focus on the former.
Langue was the most systematic and unchanging aspects of language—the code shared by all speakers.
Linguists focused on building blocks of language: phonemes, morphemes, syntax, etc.
the study of language in relation to social factors, including differences of regional, class, and occupational dialect, gender differences, and bilingualism
Words and grammatical structure shape perception of reality.
If a language is rich in ways to express certain sorts of ideas, speakers will habitually think along those lines.
A symbol is anything that stands for something else.
It has meaning even when its referent is not present.
The relationship between a symbol and its referent is arbitrary, so it must be learned.
religious practitioners (shamans, priests, saints)
generally part-time specialists
those able to contact supernatural forces on behalf of others
generally full-time specialists
formal training in ritual practice
elevated persons who emulate powerful forces
set off from ordinary social life
rites of passage
These are rituals that mark a person's transition from one status to another.
Three stages of ritual process:
transition (state of liminality or communitas)
magic that attempts to control the universe through the mimicking of a desired event
a branch of sympathetic magic based on the belief that similar actions produce similar results
(stabbing an image of an enemy in an effort to destroy him/ something representative but not an actual object of that person)
magic that attempts to affect a person through something once connected with him or her, as a shirt once worn by the person or a footprint left in the sand; a branch of sympathetic magic based on the belief that things once in contact are in some way permanently so, however separated physically they may subsequently become.
ascribed status- the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned.
achieved status- a social position that a person can acquire on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen. It reflects personal skills, abilities, and efforts.
Each status is associated with a corresponding ROLE: a bundle of rights and obligations appropriate for occupants of the status in question
social structure/social org
Classes defined by
income and wealth; financial capital
Class is a way of life and an identity. It effects one's access to education and jobs, health, treatment by criminal justice system, etc.
Bureaucracy as a form of Social Org based on several general rules:
assignment to office based on merit
rights and duties assigned to office rather than person who fills it
predictability and efficiency valued
impersonal relationships idealized
a society or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose.
an established law, practice, or custom
Durkheim's 'mechanical solidarity'
originally studied by anthropologists
nation-state as one example
Durkheim's 'organic solidarity'
originally studied by sociologists
Believing in the idea that all people are equal and deserve equal rights
All members (or groups) enjoy roughly the same degree of wealth, power and prestige.
Unequal power/ resources that creates superiority and inferiority complexes among citizens
Some members (or groups) have greater access to wealth, power and prestige.
4 types of political org: band, tribe, chiefdom, state
small population (50ish)
subsistence by hunting-gathering
kinship traced through both mother and father (bilateral)
economic relations based on reciprocity
somewhat larger population than bands
subsistence by extensive agriculture or herding/pastoralism
unilineal kinship systems (feuds) are basis ofr more centralized political systems
Formal structure that integrates multiple communities into one political unit, such that local communities do not act autonomously
Chiefs have higher rank (may be hereditary) but very limited coercive power.
lineages ranked hierarchically
extensive agriculture or herding/pastoralism
much larger population
centralized political structure that 'integrates' many communities within defined territory
more elaborate division of labor and hierarchy
monopoly on legitimate use of force to oppose external threat or internal disorder
5 types of subsistence
Foragers subsist on a variety of wild foods rather than domesticated plants & animals
rely on their herds of animals
Horticuluralists cultivate domesticated plants by using relatively simple tools and technologies.
Intensive agriculturalists use complex technologies to cultivate land permanently
Industrialism involves the use of machine technology and chemical processes to produce goods and services
3 types of distribution
reciprocity (and 'total prestation)
Prices of 'commodities' regulated by supply and demand.
Payment immediate and clearly specified.
Relationships impersonal and contractual.
Everything valued in monetary terms
subsistence versus market economy
Goods produced to meet material needs and social obligations.
Foods produced for nutritional diversity and food security.
Goods produced to sell on market.
Cash crops produced for markets.
formal versus informal economy
The informal sector or informal economy is the part of an economy that is not taxed, monitored by any form of government or included in any gross national product (GNP), unlike the formal economy.
has a formal contract with the employer
• has pre-defined work conditions and job responsibilities
• gets an assured and decent fixed salary with perks and incentives
• Has fixed duration of work time
• is part of an organized group of people working in the same environment and is legally and socially aware about its rights
• is covered by a social security for health and life risks
Those related by a common descent (blood relatives/ adoptive members of a family)
Those married into one's consanguine (marriage ties)
Ego-centric with overlapping sets of relatives/a bilateral network formed through combinations of marriage and parentage ties
Clear-cut groups- may be patrilineal or matrilineal but can only be traced from one or the other
types of descent groups (lineage, clan) and their purpose
A society is divided into two unilinear groups: (Lineage)- is a person who traces descents from a common ancestor through KNOWN links while (Clans)- are people who BELIEVE themselves to be defended from a common ancestor but CANNOT trace the links
When the family is traced through the father (M)
When the family is traced through the mother (F) (Brothers have upbringing rights)
Man resides in father's house and brings his wife to live with him
A woman remains in her mother's household and brings her husband to live with her
Upon marriage each partner is expected to move in together, separated from both sets of parents
Upon marriage both the bride and the groom remain in their own family households (live separately)
The practice of being married to one person at one time
two types of polygamy (polygyny, polyandry)
Polygamy is the practice of marrying and having more than one spouse and there is two types: Polygyny- is when a man has many wives while Polyandry- is when a woman has many husbands (this usually takes place when a woman marries a whole set of brothers to keep the husband(s) land from being split)
Colonists had two purposes: 1. to collect revenue 2. maintain law (Colonialism is a political conquest of one society by another followed by social domination and forced cultural change
This is when colonists have left and the people still follow their rules and that way of life in their absence
When colonialism stays within a state- long after the colonists leave- and they continue colonial-like relations
flow of resources and products between colonial powers and colonies
Colonists would take resources and up the prices of the resource after adding something to the mix and sell it back to the people (exploited materials)
capitalist transformation under colonialism
Changed the market systems
transition between colonialism and independence in Indian context
Movement from subsistent to market exchange: Upped wage work, land became private property, political central nation
Unilinear theory of economic development. Collection of changes that are supposed to happen together, move to rural areas, produce positive increase in productivity to tackle poverty and feed a growing population
Consequence of colonization- that they don't have independence any more
world systems theory
Everyone involved (different countries) all have a different role. Based on inequality and a need to be equal to work. Also, links nations and people together economically
Started in 1944 to reduce poverty (France got the first loan) especially for developing countries. But there is heavy paybacks (interest and also you have to follow demands)
Also in 1944, Put into use to maintain currency stability and promote world trade (if members, a country can also get a loan from the IMF)
Development of self interest in economics
Ideal of development through entrepreneurial activity
structural adjustment programs
Comes with loans (the set of demands to follow after getting a loan)
Loans are provided by IMF and WB to countries in economic crisis on condition that recipient country implements reforms:
- reduction of trade barriers
- export-oriented economy
- reduction in government spending
- privatization of industries and resources
- enhancing rights of foreign investors vis a vis national laws
This term refers to new kinds of social networks that connect people, objects, meanings and institutions.
- across geographic distance
- with varying motives for participation
The movement of people, money, resources, goods,
and ideas across the world
is not new