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Honors Geography Final SLHS

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Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Hearth
The region in which innovative ideas originate
Relocation Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Hierarchical Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Contagious Diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Stimulus Diffusion
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Absolute Direction
a compass direction such as north or south
Dispersion
the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area
Absolute Distance
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
Relative Distance
A measure of distance using known locations and direction in reference to other known locations.
Distribution
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Environmental Determinism
An earlier approach to the study of geography. It was the study of how physical environment caused human activities
Absolute Location
location of places with respect to a fixed grid or reference system such as latitude and longitude
Relative Location
a location of a place in relationship to the features around it
Site
The physical Character of a place
Situation
The location of a place relative to other places
Centralized Pattern
clustered or concentrated at a certain place
Random Pattern
no specific order or logic behind its arrangement
Physical Attributes
a quality or feature of something
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Formal Region
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional Region
An area organized around a nodal or focal point
Vernacular Region
An area that people believe to exsist as part of their cultural identity
Scale
The relationship between the portion of earth being studied and the earth as a whole
Size
the physical magnitude of something (how big it is)
Spatial
pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space
Accessibility
the ease of getting to a place; a variable quality of location
Connectivity
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
Network
an interconnected system of things or people
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual dissappearence of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between 2 places.
Acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Cultural Ecology
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural identity
the connection the people of the same culture feel with one another
Cultural Landscape
a landscape that has been changed by human beings and that reflects their culture
Culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions
Maladaptive Diffusion
Diffusion of a process with negative side effects
GIS
A computer system that organizes analyzes and displays geographic data
GPS
A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellite tracking stations and recievers
Latitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
Equator
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of the meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
Prime Meridian
the meridian designated as 0 degrees longitude which passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich England
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180 degree longitude although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing lands.
Map
A two dimensional or flat representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it
Map Scale
indicates the relationship between the distances on the actual distances on the earth.
Thematic Map
shows climate, vegetation, natural resources, population density, economic activity, historical trends, movement, etc...
Statistical Map
a graphic representation of elements of importance or interest pertaining to a theme
Cartogram Map
A presentation of statistical data in geographical distribution on a map
Choropleth Map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
Isoline
line connecting points on a map having some similar feature
Mental Map
An internal representation of a portion of earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place,containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
Gravity Model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and decreases equally the further from the location.
Social Distance
the extent to which members of one culture have contact with members of another culture
Dowry
a sum of money given by the wife's family to the husband upon marriage
Enfranchisement
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
Gender
a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental or emotional characteristics for males and females
Gender Gap
A major gap in between the two genders
Infanticide
kill infants of other males
Folk Culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Folklore
the unwritten literature (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture
Material Culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
Nonmaterial culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
Popular Culture
widely shared beliefs, tastes, goals, and practices
Survey Systems
pattern of land division used in an area
Traditional Architecture
traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places
Creole
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
Language Family
A collectio of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Language Group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relativity recent past and display relativly few differences in grammer and vocabulary
Language Subfamily
a smaller group of related languages within a language family
Lingua Franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Multilingual
using or knowing more then one language
Official Language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
Pidgin
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammer and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
Toponym
The name given to a portion of earth's surface
Chain migration
migration of people to a specific location becasue relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Assimilation
The merging of cultural traits from previously distinct cultural groups not involving biological amalgamation
Cultural Adaptation
Adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which more powerful group forcibly removes a less powerful one in orderto create an ethnically homogenous region
Ethnic Conflict
type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country
Ethnic Enclave
a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture
Ethnic Group
Belonging or deriving from the cultural racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country
Ethnic Homeland
inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distict physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
Ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Plural Society
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
Animism
Belief that objects such as plants and stones or natural events liike thunderstorms and earthquakes have a discrete spirit and conscious life
Buddhism
a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha
Christianity
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Confucianism
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
Ethnic Religion
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
Exclave
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
Enclave
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
Hinduism
A body of religious and philosophical beliefs native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation
Interfaith Boundaries
boundaries between the major religions
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Monotheism
practice of believing in one god
Polytheism
practice of believing in more then one god
Mormonism
the doctrines and practices of the Mormon Church based on the Book of Mormon
Reincarnation
a second or new birth
Religious Conflict
this is the conflicts between religions. Israel-Palestine
Sacred Space
Places sacred to certain groups
Secularism
secular opinion or belief, especially a system following a political or social philosophy that rejects religious faith
Sharia Law
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
Shia
the Shia believe that leader is called an imam and this "caliph/imam" should be a direct descendant of Mohammed
Taoism
A Chinese philosophy in which people live a simple life in harmony with nature.
Theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
Universalizing
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people not just those living in a particular location
Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the united states
Apartheid
Laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Balkanize
the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units
Natural Boundary
When a physical feature such as a mountain or river determine a political boundary
Physical Boundary
Political Boundaries that correspond with physical features such as mountains or rivers.
Buffer State
a small neutral state between two rival powers
Capital
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
Centrifugal
An attitude that tends to create separation from centralization of authority rather than pulling them together.
Centripetal
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state rather than divide them
City State
A soverign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
Core
a small group of indispensable persons or things
Periphery
the outside boundary or surface of something
Decolonization
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
Devolution
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Frontier
A zone separating two states in which neither state excersicers political control
Geopolitics
the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
Heartland
the central region of a country or continent
Landlocked
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
Law of the Sea
Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
Manifest Destiny
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Microstate
A state that encompasses a very small land area
Nation
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
Nation State
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Reunification
the act of coming together again
Satellite State
Country controlled by a more powerful nation
Self-Determination
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Sovereignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Stateless Nation
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
Suffrage
The right or privilege of voting.
Territorial Disputes
Any dispute over land ownership
Compact States
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Fragmented States
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Elongated States
A state with a long narrow shape
Perforated state
a state that completely surrounds another one
Agglomeration
the act of collecting in a mass
Blockbusting
Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
Central Business District
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
Census Tract
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Centralization
the act of consolidating power under a central control
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
Colonial City
City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers.
Commercialization
the act of commercializing something
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
Counter- urbanization
net migration for urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Decentralization
the spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments
Ethnic Neighborhood
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
Ghetto
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Hinterland
a remote and undeveloped area located around an urban area
Inner City
the older and more populated and (usually) poorer central section of a city
Megacities
cities with populations of ten million or more
Megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Planned Communities
A city built to a definite plan
Primate City
a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy
Rank Size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors or wedges radiating out from the central business district
Segregation
the act of segregating or sequestering
Slum
a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions
Squatter Settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Grid
a network of horizontal and vertical lines that provide coordinates for locating points on an image
Suburb
a residential district located on the outskirts of a city
Suburbanization
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
Urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
Solar Energy
Energy generated by the Sun
Seasons
The four cycles of weather and temperature
Rain Shadow
an area that has little precipitation because some barrier causes the winds to lose their moisture before reaching it
Climate
the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
Weather
Temperatures and climate
Continents
One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
Physical Features
The physical aspect of a country or region
Equinox
the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator, making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth and occurring about March 21
Solstice
either of the two times a year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator: about June 21, when the sun reaches its northernmost point on the celestial sphere, or about December 22, when it reaches its southernmost point.
Orographic Effect
the precipitation that occurs when moist air rises up the sides of a mountain. as the air rises, it cools down and releases most of its moisture as rain or snow
Climatic Zones
any of the geographical zones loosely divided according to prevailing climate and latitude
Development
the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful
Energy Consumption
The consuming of energy
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period
Gross National Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced nationally in a given period of time
Human Development Index
Indicator level of the development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Purchasing Power Parity
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
Technology Gap
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
Technology Transfer
the trading of technology from place to place
Third World
The region of the world containing a high concentration of underdeveloped or emergent countries.
Acid Rain
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions combine with water
Air Pollution
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ntrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and solid particulates at a greater level then occurs in average air
Aluminum Industry
manufacturers of aluminum considered as a group
Assembly Line Production
workers performed a single task repetitively
Deindustrialization
loss of the industrial activity in a region
Ecotourism
tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
Energy Resources
Natural resources that can be converted into energy
Greenhouse Effect
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
Infrastructure
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
Maquiladora
Mexican factorys that assemble parts to make product for export
Adaptive Strategies
a group's system of economic production; key factor in shaping their culture; dependent on environment & technology
Agribusiness
commercial firms that have developed w/ or stemmed out of agriculture
Agriculture
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Animal Domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
Collective Farm
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the gov't
Commercial Agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
First Agricultural Revolution
10,000 years ago achieved plant and animal domestication
Green Revolution
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Hunting and Gathering
To chase or search for game/to bring together into one group
Outsourcing
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
Ozone Depletion
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
a form of subsistance agriculture that requires larg amounts of labor to make the largest crop possible on small plots of land
Mediterranean Agriculture
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
Mining
the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth
Planned Economy
an economy in which government directs the use of national resources and regulates the economy to achieve both goals and stability.
Plantation Agriculture
raising a large amount of a "cash crop" for local sale or export
Renewable
A resource that can be replaced in a short period of time.
Nonrenewable
A resource a resource that can not be replaced within a short period of time
Second Agricultural Revolution
In the 19th c. allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories.
Third Agricultural Revolution
currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms
Human Geography
concentrates on patterns of human activity and on their relationships with the environment.
Region
an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
Space
the physical gap or interval between two objects
Place
a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
Cartography
the science of making maps
Density
The frequency with which something exists withen a given unit
Pattern
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Remote Sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Mercator Projection
true shapes of landmasses but distorts the size
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Space Time Compression
The reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Location
The position of anything on Earth's surface.
Life Expectancy
Average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
Ecumene
The portion of the Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Landforms
shape on Earth's surface, such as hills and mountains
Internal Migration
Permanent movement within a particular country
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as a crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Fertility Rate
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime
Population Density
the number of individuals per unit area
Doubling Rate
numbers that it takes a population to double in size
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Push Factors
Factors that induce people to leave old residences.
Pull Factors
Factors that induce people to move to a new location.
Brain Drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people
Quotas
In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of in search of higher-paying jobs.
Emigrate
Migration from a location
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location
5 Pillars of Islam
the principles by which Muslims live their lives
Caste System
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Ethnic Diversity
Differences among groups of people based on their origins, languages, customs, or beliefs
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
Multinational State
state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Altaic Language
a group of related languages spoken in Asia and southeastern Europe
Multi-ethnic State
Sate that contains more than one ethnicity.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Overpopulation
the number of people in an area exceeds that capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Land Area
the amount of land inside the borders of a state or country
Prorupted State
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
More Developed Countries (MDC)
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Less Developed Countries (LDC)
a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
Economic Sector
a segment or section of an economy, such as farming, manufacturing, mining, and transportation
Pastoral Nomad
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Teritary Sector
the portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities.
Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Consolidation
something that has consolidated into a compact mass
Resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Biomass Fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
Fossil Fuel
energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Infant Mortality Rate
the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births
Immigration
migration to a new location
Population
the people who inhabit a territory or state
One Child Policy
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside created in 1980
Fractional Scale
The ratio between two sets of dimensions.
Graphic Scale
A ruler printed on the map and is used to convert distances on the map to actual ground distances
Projection Scale
A method of representing the surface of a sphere or other shape on a plane.
Robinson Map Projections
A map projection of a world map, which shows the entire world at once
Goode's Homolosine Projection
Shows continents but distorts ocean
Gnomic Projection
displays all great circles as straight lines
Population Momentum
built-in potential for population growth due to a large number of individuals entering reproductive age
Stationary Population Pyramid
A population pyramid typical of countries with low fertility and low mortality
Constrictive Population pyramid
population pyramid showing lower numbers or percentages of younger people
Expansive Population Pyramid
A population pyramid showing a broad base, indicating a high proportion of children, a rapid rate of population growth, and a low proportion of older people
Supranational Organization
Extending beyond or transcending established borders or spheres of influence held by separate nations:
Core-periphery Model
maintained that the world can be divided into four types of region.
Von Thunen's model
Model which shows the location of agriculture in regard to a commercial economy that is similar to the concentric model
1st Pillar of Islam
There is no other God except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger."
2nd Pillar of Islam
Pray 5 times a day toward Mecca
3rd Pillar of Islam
giving alms to the poor
4th Pillar of Islam
Ritual fast during the holy month of Ramadan
5th Pillar of Islam
Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca
Four ways to define a location
1. Place Name
2. Site
3. Situation
4. Mathematical Location
Forms of Map Scale
1. Fractional
2. Written
3. Graphic
1st Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth rate and Death Rate Low.
Natural Increase Rate Low
Stone Age Period of Development
2nd Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate High.
Death Rate Declining
Natural Increase Rate High
Less Developed Country
3rd Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate Declining.
Death Rate Low
Natural Increase Rate Moderate
Developing Country
4th Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate and Death Rate Low
Natural Increase Rate Low
Zero Population Growth
More Developed Country