Race Relations Exam 2

In what 3 ways can the old immigrants be differentiated from the new immigrants?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 83
Terms in this set (83)
What are 4 types of legislation that eugenics supporters lobbied for?Segregation Anti-miscegenation Sterilization Restrictive immigration quotasHow many US states had sterilization laws?33The emergency immigration legislation of the 1920s was designed primarily to keep what group out of the US?Southern and eastern EuropeansThe act that used a literacy test to prevent many southern and eastern Europeans from entering the US:1917 Immigration ActThe act that cut southern and European immigration to ¼ of its previous level by restricting immigration to 3% of its representation in the 1910 census:1921 Emergency Quota ActThe act that barred most Asians from entering the US by literally creating an Asiatic barred zone:1917 Immigration ActThe act that further cut southern and eastern European immigration by restricting each country's immigration to 2% of their representation in the 1890 census:1924 Reed-Johnson Act or National Origins Quota ActThe act which even further restricted southern and eastern European immigration that established numerical quotas for each nation, which was derived from a complicated calculation (each nation's quota was supposed to be "in proportion to the nation's contribution to the American population"):1929 National Quota ActThe 1929 National Quota Act, which would heavily favor those from northern and western Europe over those from southern and eastern Europe, would remain in effect until what year?1965The racial group with the highest poverty and unemployment rates in the nation:Native AmericansThe group with the lowest life-span in the US:Native Americans (42 years)Refers to the tendency to look at the world from the perspective of one's own culture:Ethnocentrism3 contributing factors to the ethnic hierarchy which placed Europeans over that of Native Americans:Differential power (disease and firearms) Competition over land EthnocentrismUVM professor who deemed the Abenake "unfit" and therefore needed to be sterilized:Henry PerkinsThe tribe that whites deemed to be the most civilized: Bilingual newspaper education system lived in brick-style houses Cherokee alphabetCherokeeThe outcome of the court case the Cherokee Nation v. state of Georgia (1831):Georgia was allowed to take their land, status as a foreign nation was removedThe outcome of the court case Worcester v. Georgia (1832):Reaffirmed Cherokee sovereignty, ruled in favor of Cherokees keeping their landHow did Congress react to the 1832 case which allowed Cherokees to keep their land?Passed Indian Removal Act (Andrew Jackson), Trail of Tears (~10 years forcibly removed and marched west)The tribes affected by the Indian Removal Act included who?Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Seminole, ChickasawThe most infamous part of the removal was that of the Cherokee and was called:Trail of TearsWhat percent of Cherokees dies on the Trail of Tears?25%The Act that distributed 160 acres of land to each native American family was:The Dawes Act/the General Allotment Act (1887)What was the purpose of the Dawes Act?To assimilate Native Americans, to teach them individualism and self-interest5 Problems with General Allotment Act:-Land was worthless for farming -Further reduced Native American land, -Created inheritance problems -Broke up tribes -Many tribes were unskilled at farming (were hunters and gatherers)Besides the Dawes Act, what 3 other ways did the US government try to assimilate Native Americans?Indian Boarding Schools (Carlisle), Blood Quantum Law, proposed tax breaks to whites to marry w/ Native AmericansAn act that is a good example of a policy of pluralism is what:Indian Reorganization Act (IRA)What 5 things did the IRA do?Indian Reorganization Act of 1934Rescinded Dawes Act, encouraged tribal self-governance, extended financial credit to tribes, allowed tribes to reconsolidate land, proposed an end to the paternal role of the Bureau of Indian AffairsWhile the IRA was seen as a progressive policy, this would end with another shift in policy in the 1950s called:The Termination Act (1953)What 2 things did the Termination Act do?Rejected IRA, terminated all special relationships between US government and tribesWhat was so problematic about the Termination Act?Lost all federal services, happened really quickly (led to huge economic upheaval)What were 2 problems with using white indentured labor to fulfill growing labor demands in the US?Labor was expensive, weren't enough white indentured servants to fulfill labor demandWhat were 4 problems with enslaving Native Americans to fulfill labor demands?-Knew the land and terrain (could escape easily) -weren't great farmers (no agricultural skills), -population was dwindling (European disease), -politically organized and had lots of support to resist enslavementWhat made Africans an ideal choice to fulfill labor demands in this country?Were in unfamiliar territory (nowhere to run away, came involuntarily), had agricultural skills, ethnocentrism (seen as physically, culturally, and religiously different)Did racism lead to slavery? In other words, did Europeans view Africans as inferior and that led to their enslavement?No, the notion that Africans were inferior to Americans came to be used as a justification 100 years after slavery started.Who was the Swedish taxonomer who divided humans into 4 racial groups?Carl LinnaeusGerman professor of medicine who divided humans into 5 groups based on skull morphology:Johann BlumenbachProminent Louisiana physician and scientist who was known for reporting on the disease of the "Negro race":Samuel Cartwright (needed to be whipped and controlled, it was beneficial to them)Laws that enforced slavery and kept slaves under control:Slave codesThe amendment to the US constitution that would officially prohibit slavery:13th AmendmentAfter slavery ended, two ways that white Southerners tried to maintain their power and privilege over blacks in the South:Jim Crow Laws, Black CodesWhere does the term "Jim Crow" originate from?Popular character in minstrel showsWhat is a minstrel show?Whites wearing blackface, mimic stereotypes of black people (in unflattering ways for the entertainment of other whites)The infamous court case which ruled "separate but equal" is okay and this case upheld segregation laws in the US:Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)In addition to the ruling "separate but equal", Plessy vs. Ferguson is also known for upholding what arbitrary rule of racial classification?One drop rule5 types of Jim Crow laws discussed in class:Physical separation laws, anti-miscegenation laws, one drop laws, voting laws, informal Jim Crow etiquetteWhat was John Howard Griffin's research question?How is the situation as a black person living in the south? Is it really as good as white people say it is?How did John Howard Griffin alter his physical appearance?-cut his hair, took vitiligo pills, tanned under UV lightWhere/when does John Howard Griffin perform his experiment?-Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, Mississippi -1959-1960 but only 7 weeks longAccording to Griffin, what are some of the "Southern rules" (both formal and informal) that he discovers as a black man?-not allowed to talk or look at white people -can't eat wherever -have to travel really far for drinking water, bathrooms -hyper-sexualizedWhat is a green book?-used for blacks when they wanted to travel, because there were few amenities open to people of color.What was the Brown vs. Board case, and who opposed and supported it?-said that it was unconstitutional to segregate schools -Eisenhower didn't want to support it but ultimately had to when the situation in Little Rock became really bad. -JFK didn't want to openly support it because he knew he would lose southern voters, but stepped in when James Meredith wanted to attend Ole Miss.Nativist Goals-Reserve jobs for white American citizens -Restrict citizenship to white native born citizens -Restrict immigration -Restrict office-holding to white native born citizensEugenics movementThe idea that a "bad" genetic traits could be bred out and good traits could promoted in order to improve society. Some Americans believed that the society could be improved by controlled breeding. They accomplished this by sterilizing many criminals and the mentally handicapped.Why did Galton believe mankind was interfering with natural selection? 2 things- Modern medicine and welfare programs - Both aided in keeping people around with less desirable traits (sickly, less intelligent, etc.) - Believed natural selection to ensure the progress of the human race - We should mate the best with the best!Who was considered unfit in the eyes of the Eugenics movement?-Mental illness -Mental disability -Criminality -Alcoholism -Deafness/blindness -Physical deformities -Epilepsy -Poverty -Illiteracy -Racial minorities, Irish, Southern and Eastern EuropeansWhy were Southern & Eastern European immigrants seen as "unfit"?Inferior genes Less beautiful Mentally deficient Full of disease Criminals Promiscuous LazyEugenics Propaganda- journals/books - textbooks - college courses - posters - flyers - pamphlets - films - health exhibits - beauty contestsEugenics "reward""Reward" = Intelligent Industrious Disease-Free Beautiful Northern European babyThese "beauty" contests privileged _______________ European characteristics!NorthernSupporters of the Eugenics movementAdolf Hitler, President Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Alexander Bell, Margaret Sanger (planned parenthood)To protect the superior race of Northern Europeans, Eugenics supporters lobbied Congress for:Segregation of the "unfit" Sterilization of the "unfit" Anti-miscegenation laws Restrictive immigration lawsWhite PrivilegeUnearned advantages and that accrue to "white" people by virtue of a system that establishes their benefits group as and what is most the norm desired or esteemed."Privilege" refers to a special circumstances and conditions that you experience but:(1) you did not earn (2) you get because your group is considered to be "normal" in society (3) you generally take for granted/it goes unnoticed by youGold Rush in California-Authorities offered bounties to settlers for the heads of Native Americans -Even reimbursing people for the bullets used to shoot them! -Mini Holocaust (150,000--> 30,000)By the mid-1900s , there was a ____% decrease in NA population95A wealthy Cherokee 400 acre plantation in GA 100s of African slaves 1824: Cherokees owned an estimated 1,277 African slavesJoseph VannSamuel Worcester-missionary who lived among the Cherokees -Defender of Cherokee sovereignty -He was arrested & convicted for disobeying Georgia's law restricting white missionaries from living in Cherokee territory without a state licenseIn her allotted land, Oil was discovered making her extremely rich! -Because of her wealth, she was declared a white person by the Oklahoma legislature! (social construction of race)Sarah RectorBlood quantum and the CDIB card- To limit the number of people claiming ancestry - As the dwindling Native American population mixes with other racial groups, their children will have less & less "Indian blood" and rendered unable to claim to be Native American.Indian Boarding SchoolsIndian Boarding schools "educated" them on how to be proper Americans and how they should strip themselves of their original beliefs. Taught Christianity - American federal policy: remove children from their families & tribesIndian Reorganization Act of 1934-Rescinded the Dawes Act -Proposed an end to the paternalistic role of the BIA -Extended financial credit to tribes -Permitted the reconsolidation of Native American land -Encouraged tribal self governanceCommon stereotypes of NAsHypersexual Child-like Savage Stoic (e.g. Noble savage) Homogenous Alcoholics4 Race TypologyThe Asian, African, European, American