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A & P Chap 9 Muscles
Terms in this set (67)
threshold stimulus is the
minimal amount of energy required to contract a muscle fiber.
The striated appearance of skeletal muscle results from the
Smooth muscle has ___________ and not troponin.
Skeletal muscles help maintain body temperature in that
the more active they are, the more heat is released.
The buccinator muscle is in the
Rigor mortis affects skeletal muscles a few hours after death, due to
decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium.
People with myasthenia gravis lack
about two-thirds of the normal number of acetylcholine receptors
Myasthenia gravis is
an autoimmune disorder.
In muscle contraction ATP supplies energy for
The very brief moment following stimulation when a muscle remains unresponsive to additional stimulation is called the
Which of the following statements is correct?
Actin filaments slide along myosin filaments.
supplies energy for the synthesis of ATP.
A shift in metabolism that breaks down pyruvic acid to lactic acid is called
A tendon is ______, whereas an aponeurosis is ______.
cordlike and connects muscles to bones; a broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that connects muscles to muscles
The muscle primarily responsible for an action is the
The discoloration and swelling of a muscle strain is due to
ruptured blood vessels.
Transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum are well developed in
skeletal muscle fibers
At a neuromuscular junction
neurotransmitters are released.
Athletes usually experience muscle fatigue less quickly than nonathletes because they
produce less lactic acid.
The soleus is a muscle that forms part of the
A myogram is
a recording of the events of a twitch.
The severe pain of compartment syndrome is caused by
too much fluid in the compartment.
Tawanda finishes a sprint and suffers great pain in her calf muscles. Her muscle cramps are most likely due to a temporary deficit of
The muscle that adducts and flexes the arm is the
Arrange the following steps for contraction in the correct sequence.1. The muscle impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium is released.2. Thin filaments are pulled over the thick filaments.3. Calcium floods the sarcoplasm and binds to troponin molecules leaving active sites.4. The impulse arrives at the synapse and travels through the transverse tubules.5. The muscle fiber shortens and contracts.6. Tropomyosin molecules bind to exposed active sites, linking actin and myosin
4, 1, 3, 6, 2, 5
A motor unit is
a motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it.
A gluteal gait, in which a person walks with a waddling limp, is usually caused by a disorder of the
gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.
A muscle that assists a prime mover is a(n)
The outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is the
Myofibrils are composed primarily of
actin and myosin
The enzyme acetylecholinesterase causes acetylcholine to
Fibers of muscles whose motor neurons are severed
may be replaced by fat or fibrous connective tissue
Oxygen debt in muscles may develop because of
the inability of respiratory and circulatory systems to supply enough oxygen to skeletal muscles when used strenuously for a minute or two.
In a recording of a muscle twitch, the delay between the time a stimulus is applied and the time the muscle responds is called the
Regina began an exercise program six months ago, and the muscles of her upper limbs and lower limbs are more prominent. Exercise can lead to formation of new muscle by
stimulating skeletal muscle cells to release IL-6, which stimulates satellite cells to divide, producing more muscle cells.
Both acetylcholine and norepinephrine can affect
smooth muscle contraction
An example of a partial but sustained contraction is
Which of the following is not true?
Red fibers have fewer mitochondria than white.
Functions of muscles are for
distribution of heat.
all of the above.
transmit muscle impulses into the cell interior.
Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle
contracts more slowly and relaxes more slowly
The type of muscle cell that lacks transverse tubules, has a single nucleus, and is under involuntary control is
The functional unit of muscle contraction is
The relationship between ATP and creatine phosphate is that
creatine phosphate supplies energy to regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate.
__________ degrades acetylcholine, keeping it from accumulating in the synapse.
Smooth muscle lacks
transverse tubules and striations.
A sign of aging of the muscular system is
decreased supplies of myoglobin to muscles.
Neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles in
motor neuron endings
The amount of oxygen liver cells require to react lactic acid to produce glucose or the glycogen glycogen is the
Short muscle cells with centrally located nuclei are
smooth muscle fibers.
Bones and muscles function as mechanical devices called
The structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are
Which of the following is not a muscle of mastication?
The toxin that causes botulism
prevents release of acetylcholine
The triangle of auscultation, commonly used to hear sounds of respiratory organs, is located near the border of the
trapezius and latissimus dorsi.
The first event in muscle fiber contraction is that
acetylcholine is released from the end of the motor neuron.
The linea alba is
a band of tough connective tissue to which abdominal wall muscles attach.
all of the above.
is only in the heart.
responds in an all-or-none manner.
contracts as a syncytium
Muscle atrophy that progresses with aging is caused by reduction in
the sizes of muscle fibers.
all of the above.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome causes
clicking sound from the jaw.
all of the above.
ringing in the ears.
The movable end of a muscle is its
A plank position is part of a yoga/Pilates workout. The person supports the body on the floor in a prone position with the arms and feet supporting the body. It is a little like the "up" position of a push-up, held for 30 to 60 seconds. Contraction of the abdominal muscles in a plank is most likelyi
Muscle fibers are basically a collection of
Which of the following is unique in that its insertion is to fascia and not bone?
The functional connection between a neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber is a
At a neuromuscular junction, the muscle fiber membrane folds, forming a
motor end plate.
Weightlifting, in which a muscle exerts more than 75% of its maximum tension, stimulates
muscle fibers developing new filaments of actin and myosin.
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