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After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates:

the hindsight bias

Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates:


Whe you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying:

critical thinking

Psychological theories:

organize scientific observations, explain observed facts and generate hypotheses.

Operational definitions are most likely to facilitate:


When most scores in a data set are toward one end of the range of scores, the distribution is said to be:


If a distribution is badly skewed, researchers are more likely than usual to prefer the _________ as a measure of central tendancy.


The median of a skewed distribution is likely to be__________ than the mean.

less than or greater than

Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter employing?

naturalistic observation

Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical leves of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:

correlation does not prove causation

Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?

the experiment

The ______________ is a measure of _____________.

median, central tendancy

Janet has five brothers who are 4, 6, 6, 9, and 15 years of age. The mean age of Janet's brothers is:


Random samples provide _____________ estimates of population averages if the samples have small _______________.

good, standard deviations

Every twenty-fifth person who ordered a subscription to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine's contents. The researchers were most clearly employing a technique known as:

random sampling

Surveys are most likely to indicate that reckless behavior and self-control are:

negatively correlated

A tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by harmful events is most likely to contribute to:

illusory correlations

In a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink either an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic bevarage prior to completing a memory test. Those who drank the nonalcoholic beverage participated in the ____________ condition.


In an experimental study of the effects of dieting on weight loss, dieting would be the:

independent variable

The _______ can be a particularly misleading indication of what is average for a __________ distribution of scores.

mean, skewed

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