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subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
in an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
in an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
the subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes weather any changes occur in a second variable as a result
a definition that describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
a descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather info about specific aspects of the subjects behavior
a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group
a type of learning that occurs when an organisms responding is inflected by the observation of others who are called models
any measureable conditions or events characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or deserved in a study
Five Steps of Scientific Investigation
formulate a hypothesis, design the study, collect data, analyze the data and draw conclusions, and report the findings- peer review
a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
any variables other than the independent variable that seems likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
Confounding of Variables
occurs when two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group of condition in the study
Positive and Negative Correlation
refer to the direction of the relationship between two variables, not to its strength
researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
Main Problem with Case Study
subjectivity makes it easy to see what one expects to see based on ones theoretical slant and researches are unable to draw casual conclusions; clinical samples are often unrepresentative and suffer from sampling bias
Experimental Research Advantages
precise control over variables can eliminate alternative explanations for finding and researcher are able to draw conclusions about cause and effect relationships between variables
Experimental Research Disadvantages
confounding of variables must be avoided- continued laboratory situations are often artificial, making it risky to generalize findings to the real world- ethnical concurs and practical realities prelude experiments on many important questions
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