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34 terms

Psychology Chapter Two

Chapter Two Test
STUDY
PLAY
correlation
the extent to which two variables are related to each other
Control Group
subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
Dependent Variable
in an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
Independent Variable
in an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
Experimental Group
the subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
Experimental
a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes weather any changes occur in a second variable as a result
Operational Definition
a definition that describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
Reliability
the measurement consistency of a test
Survey
a descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather info about specific aspects of the subjects behavior
Double-Blind Procedure
a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group
Observational Learning
a type of learning that occurs when an organisms responding is inflected by the observation of others who are called models
Hypothesis
a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Variables
any measureable conditions or events characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or deserved in a study
Theory
a system or interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observation
Five Steps of Scientific Investigation
formulate a hypothesis, design the study, collect data, analyze the data and draw conclusions, and report the findings- peer review
Participant or Subjects
are people or animals whose behaviors is systemically observed in study
Journal
a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
Peer Review
process for journal submissions
Advantages of Scientific Approach
clarity in communication and relative intolerance of error
Extraneous Variables
any variables other than the independent variable that seems likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
Confounding of Variables
occurs when two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
Random Assignment
of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group of condition in the study
Correlation Coefficient
is a numerical index of degree of relationship between two variables
Positive and Negative Correlation
refer to the direction of the relationship between two variables, not to its strength
Positively Correlation
if they tend to increase and decrease together
Negatively Correlation
if one tends to increase when the other decreases
Naturalistic Observation
researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
Reactivity
occurs when a subjects behavior is altered by presence of an observer
Case Study
is an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
Main Problem with Case Study
subjectivity makes it easy to see what one expects to see based on ones theoretical slant and researches are unable to draw casual conclusions; clinical samples are often unrepresentative and suffer from sampling bias
Experimental Research Advantages
precise control over variables can eliminate alternative explanations for finding and researcher are able to draw conclusions about cause and effect relationships between variables
Experimental Research Disadvantages
confounding of variables must be avoided- continued laboratory situations are often artificial, making it risky to generalize findings to the real world- ethnical concurs and practical realities prelude experiments on many important questions
Sample
collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
Sampling bias
exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn