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Chapter Two Test


the extent to which two variables are related to each other

Control Group

subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group

Dependent Variable

in an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable

Independent Variable

in an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable

Experimental Group

the subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable


a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes weather any changes occur in a second variable as a result

Operational Definition

a definition that describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable


the measurement consistency of a test


a descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather info about specific aspects of the subjects behavior

Double-Blind Procedure

a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group

Observational Learning

a type of learning that occurs when an organisms responding is inflected by the observation of others who are called models


a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables


any measureable conditions or events characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or deserved in a study


a system or interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observation

Five Steps of Scientific Investigation

formulate a hypothesis, design the study, collect data, analyze the data and draw conclusions, and report the findings- peer review

Participant or Subjects

are people or animals whose behaviors is systemically observed in study


a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry

Peer Review

process for journal submissions

Advantages of Scientific Approach

clarity in communication and relative intolerance of error

Extraneous Variables

any variables other than the independent variable that seems likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study

Confounding of Variables

occurs when two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects

Random Assignment

of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group of condition in the study

Correlation Coefficient

is a numerical index of degree of relationship between two variables

Positive and Negative Correlation

refer to the direction of the relationship between two variables, not to its strength

Positively Correlation

if they tend to increase and decrease together

Negatively Correlation

if one tends to increase when the other decreases

Naturalistic Observation

researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects


occurs when a subjects behavior is altered by presence of an observer

Case Study

is an in-depth investigation of an individual subject

Main Problem with Case Study

subjectivity makes it easy to see what one expects to see based on ones theoretical slant and researches are unable to draw casual conclusions; clinical samples are often unrepresentative and suffer from sampling bias

Experimental Research Advantages

precise control over variables can eliminate alternative explanations for finding and researcher are able to draw conclusions about cause and effect relationships between variables

Experimental Research Disadvantages

confounding of variables must be avoided- continued laboratory situations are often artificial, making it risky to generalize findings to the real world- ethnical concurs and practical realities prelude experiments on many important questions


collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study

Sampling bias

exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn

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