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HSB Test 3
Terms in this set (403)
As children grow, their curiosity about their bodies continues and during early childhood reaches a peak in the age period from ____ years old
In the initial school-age years, children develop a sense of ____
`___ is the time in life in which an individual first shows sexual attraction and becomes capable of ____
many bodily changes occur, the result of changeing ___ levels and these physical changes require many adjustments for young adolescents.
the most important issue in the lives of most adolescents is ___, and during these years there is a focus on body image and physical characteristics
surveys find that ___ of american high school students have engaged in sexual intercourse's
for some teens, however, having sexual relations is not a positive experience yet many engage in it because of ____
by the time peopel are in their mid 20s most people's sexual lifestyle is characterized by ___, either in marriage or by cohabitation
in all cultures, the idealistic goal is a ____
throughout the world, men value female promiscuity when pursuing short-term relationships, but when choosing a long-term mate, men in most cultures value ___
when choosing a long-term mate, women generally prefer men who can offer them ___
economic and physical protection
sexual activity is highest for people in their ___ and only gradually declines up throuhg the late 50s
mid 20s to mid 30s
as women grow older their menstrual cycles become irregular and eventually stop entirely, which is called -___
this usually occurs in a woman's late 40s or early 50s and the change in hormones can result in hot flashes, a decrease in _____ and osteoporosis
this also show a gradual decline in ___ beginning in their late teens
this also results in some physical changes, such as a decline in muscle mass and strength, less firm erections, less forceful ejaculations and longer ___ periods
for healthy couples, the best predictor of whether they will enjoy sex in old age is ___
their sexual activity when they were younger
__ begins in infancy and children receive it from their peers, the media and own behaviors
communication between parents and their children about sexuality should begin ___ and be ongoing
in early childhood
when talking to your chidden about sex, ___ is just as important as what you say
how you say it
you should strive to create an atmosphere of love and caring, so avoid ___ and do not lecture to them.
it is also important that your children view you to be accepting and ___
the only way you will be able to know whether your attempts to educate your chlidren about sexuality have been successful is by their ___
willingness to come to you when they have questions and problems
ultrasound recording have found that male fetuses have erections while still inside the uterus
children cannot masterbate to orgasm until they reach puberty
the growth of pubic hair on girls is the result of increased levels of testosterone
if a child is found engaging in sexual exploration games with another child of the same sex before age 7, the child is probably gay
couples who lived together before marriage are less likely than other couples to get divorced
in a study of 202 men and women aged 80 to 102, it was found that nearly half still engaged in sexual intercourse
the lack of vaginal lubrication in women who have undergone menopause is an indicator that their sex life is coming to an end
the average married couple in their 20s or 30s have sex more often than young singles
adults almost always quit masterbating after they are married
the average age at which girls have their first menstrual cycle has been decreasing over the last two centuries
hot flashes are due in part to increasing levels of pituitary hormones
the best predictor of sexual activity for older women is the amount of vaginal lubrication they had when they were younger
boys often develop enlarged breasts during puberty
in early childhood it is normal for children to engage in sexual behaviors that imitate adults
the way parents react to the sexuality of their children's is generally an indication of the way they feel about their own sexuality
in terms of hormone changes with aging, men and women are very much alike
in men, the production of sperm generally stops by the early 50s (41)
in some cultures, hot flashes are uncommon among postmenopausal women (43)
if an adult man is castrated, it substantially raises his voice (45)
girls as young as 6 or 7 have given birth
most teenage girls experience severe pain during their first sexual intercourse
the sexual activity of emerging adults is generally different from the activity of younger and older age grous
men and women are more likely to be upset by their partner's having a sexual relationship with someone else than they are about their having an emotional attachment
f (true for men)
there is a strong relationship between social background (religious and political views) and whether or not one engages in extramarital affairs
children's first sexual attractions occur around age 10
breast development in girls
a. increase in estrogen
vaginal dryness at menopause
b. decrease in estrogen
hot flashes in women
e. increase in FSH and LH (caused by b. decrease in estrogen)
development of sweat glands
c. increase in testosterone
a. increase in estrogen
pubic hair and body hair
c. increase in testosterone
e. increase in FSH and LH
less firm erection and logner refractory period
d. decrease in testosterone
reversal of effects of menopause
a. increase in estrogen
decreased sexual desire in women
d. decrease in testosterone
decreased sexual desire in men
d. decrease in testosterone
children's first sexual attractions
c. increase in testosterone
f. increase in DHEA from adrenal glands
the decline in sexual activity among older single women is most often due to ____
lack of a partner
the changes that occur in women in the few years that precede and follow menopause are called ___
before age 2, bodily exploration is usually confined to ___
freud referred to what this chapter calls the initial school-age years as the ___ stage of psychosexual development
development of breasts and growth of facial hari are examples of
secondary sex characteristics
for many teenage girls, the need for ___ is an important part of finding their self-identity
throughout the world, men tend to engage in casual sex to ___
test their virility
about 80% of all societies allow men to ___
have multiple wives
women are most concerned about ___ infidelity by their mates
whitehurst believes that the two things most likely to lead to extramarital sex are __ and __-
puberty is at least a two=part maturational process. the two parts are called ___ and ___
42. most women show a decreased interest in sex after menopause
44. pubertal development in boys lags about 2 years behind development of girls
_____ is your subjective sense of being a man or woman.
_____ are norms ( what is considered appropriate) about the behaviors and attitudes of men and women.
A person's genetic sex is determined at conception by the combination of an egg, which has an X chromosome for sex, and a sperm, which can have either an X or Y chromosome. ______ combinations usually result in girls, while ____ combinations usually produce boys.
These include men with one or more extra X chromosomes, _____ syndrome, and women with only one X chromosome, ____ syndrome.
Hormones determine whether an embryo will develop anatomically to be a boy or a girl. Unless there are high levels of ____ at this critical stage of prenatal development, nature has programmed the body to develop into a _____.
Hormone disorders before birth can result in a mismatch between genetic and anatomical sex, or a baby whose external genitalia are ambiguous in appearance. The most common condition in girls is called ____.
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Some individuals feel that they are trapped inside a body of the wrong sex, a feeling called ______.
Persons whose gender identity does not match their biological sex are called ____.
____ theory emphasizes unconscious identification with the parent of the same sex, while ____ theory emphasizes, the role of reinforcement and imitation.
Cognitive-developmental theory states that children do not acquire the concept of ____ until the age of _____.
6 or 7
____ theory says that psychological sex differences between men and women are inherent and the result of different reproductive pressures each faced over thousands of generations.
____ theory emphasizes the role of the environment or social context in influencing the way gender roles develop over the life span.
Masculinity and femininity were once viewed as opposite ends of a unidimensional continuum, but today the are generally viewed as ____ constructs.
This has led to the theory of ____, which says that a person can be both masculine and feminine and that this is the healthiest of all gender roles because of the flexibility it gives individuals in different situations.
When children cognitively organize the world according to gender, they create gender ____.
Recent studies have shown that some differences between men and women in sexual attitudes and behaviors are better explained by evolutionary theory (such as ____) while others are better explained by sociocultural theory (such as _____.)
TF? Transgendered and transsexual mean the same thing
TF? Hormone levels in the second half of pregnancy alter brain anatomy to be either "male" or "female"
TF? By the age of 3, children know whether they are a boy or a girl, but do not understand that this cannot change.
TF? In the absence of testosterone during embryonic development, we would all be born anatomically a girl.
TF? Fathers tend to treat their children in more gender-stereotypic ways than do mothers.
TF? Transsexual is a term for a type of homosexual.
TF? According to social learning theory, imitation is a process by which children may learn gender identity and gender roles.
TF? The rise of industrialization helped create the male gender role of being independent and unemotional.
TF? Gender role is the way you express your gender identity.
TF? The most common hormonal disorder of sex development in men is androgen insensitivity syndrome.
TF? Men's and women's hypothalamuses are different.
TF? A transsexual is someone who cross-dresses for sexual arousal.
TF? Children do not show gender-sterotyped behavior until they have developed gender constancy.
TF? In girls, male sex-play behavior is related to fetal testosterone levels.
TF? There is little noticeable difference between the behavior of boys and the behavior of girls before the age of 2.
Tom believes he is a woman, but anatomically a man and does not want a sex reassignment surgery.
Bob is low in instrumental orientation ("getting the job done") and has great affective concern for the welfare of others.
"feminine" on Bem Sex-Role Inventory
Frank prefers men as sexual partners.
Susan cannot reproduce; she is short and infertile and has one X chromosome.
Joe is neither instrumental nor expressive, neither assertive nor emotional.
David's body did not respond to testosterone during prenatal development; he has female genitalia and undescended testes.
androgen insensitivity syndrome
disorder of sex development
Sam was born with a very small penis that looked like a clitoris, an incomplete scrotum, and a short closed vaginal cavity. At puberty his voice deepened, his testicles descended, and his "clitoris" grew to become a penis.
androgen insensitivity syndrome
Wayne is both instrumental and expressive, assertive and emotional.
Phillip believes he is a woman trapped in a male body and wishes to have sex reassignment surgery.
Carol has an enlarged clitoris and labia because of too much masculinizing hormone during her fetal development.
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Mike believes that men should be assertive, aggressive, success-oriented, unemotional, and should play little role in housekeeping and childcare responsibilities.
Harold is tall, with long arms; he has a small penis, shrunken testicles, low sexual desire, and an extra X chromosome.
Barbara is genetically a women, but has both male and female reproductive systems as a result of the failure of her primitive gonads to differentiate during the embryonic stage.
disorder of sex development
A child's knowledge that his or her sex does not change is called ____ in cognitive-developmental theory.
According to Cancian, gender roles for men and women did not start to differ until the ____.
1800s (when US and other countries became industrialized)
According to ___ theory, an individual's gender role results from society's expectations of male and female behavior.
According to Freud, children acquire the gender identity of the same-sex parent through the process of ____.
The process of internalizing society's beliefs is called ___.
Oversimplified, rigid beliefs that all members of a particular sex have distinct behavioral and emotional characteristics are called _____.
On Bem's Sec-Role Inventory, a person who scores low on both dimensions is called ____.
According to Freud, children acquire their gender identity in the ___ stage of psychosexual development.
If an individual scores high on both the femininity dimension and the masculine dimension of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, he or she would be called _____.
Money and Ehrhardt (1972) stated, "Nature's rule is, it would appear, that to masculinize, something must be added." That something is _____.
____ cross-dress for sexual arousal and gratification, whereas ____ cross-dress because they truly believe they are members of the opposite sex.
In social learning explantations of gender identity development, when children watch their mothers and fathers and copy them, it is called ____.
Gender refers to _____.
the social construction of masculinity and femininity
According to Bem, masculine is to instrumental as feminine is to _____.
According to Kagan, boys' and girls' behaviors do not differ at the age of ____.
Some languages classify all nouns as either masculine or feminine. This is an example of _______.
The presence of _____ shortly before an after birth changes the brain to male anatomy.
Among early North American Indian tribes, a _____ was a highly respected man who cross-dressed and assumed the behaviors of a woman.
In this chapter, sexual orientation is defined as _____ consistently made after adolescence in the presence of clear alternatives.
Recent surveys indicate that ____ % of the adult male population and about ____% of adult female population have a homosexual or bisexual orientation.
A true bisexual would have a rating of ____ on Kinsey's 7-point rating scale.
2,3, or 4
The _____ of the vast majority of homosexuals and bisexuals are just as strong and consistent with their anatomical sex as among heterosexuals.
Conformity or nonconformity with gender ___ does not always predict one's sexual orientation.
Psychoanalytic explanations state that heterosexuality is the "normal" outcome and that homosexuality results from problems in resolving the _____ complex.
____ regards homosexuality and heterosexuality as learned behaviors; good or rewarding experiences with individuals of one sex and/or bad experiences with individuals of the other sex (particularly during adolescence) would lead to a particular orientation.
Social learning theory
In the ____ society in Melanesia, all boys engage in same-sex sexual behaviors for many years, yet the large majority grow up to have a heterosexual orientation.
Studies with twins indicate a ____ factor, while anatomical studies have found differences in the ___ of heterosexuals and homosexuals.
Many researchers believe that differences in ___ before or shortly after we are born predispose us to a particular sexual orientation.
Nearly all agree that biological and social/cultural influences ___ to produce sexual orientation.
Anthropologists find that most societies are ___ tolerant of homosexuality than prevailing attitudes in the United States.
The _____ and ___ accepted homosexuality, as did the early Christians.
It was not until Saint ____ that homosexuality came to be viewed as unnatural or "against the laws of nature," and not until the 1600s and 1700s that it was regarded as criminal.
The process of ____, or identifying oneself as homosexual, involves several often painful stages. The first stage is____.
admitting to oneself that one has a homosexual orientation.
In the final stages, the individual attempts to gain the acceptance and understanding of friends, family, and coworkers. This is difficult in a society filled with _____, socially reinforced negative attitudes toward individuals, communities, and homosexual behaviors.
The official position of the American Psychological Association and the American Medical Association is that therapists ____ one's sexual orientation.
should not attempt to change
TF? In some cultures, same-sex sexual behavior is considered normal for boys during adolescence.
TF? Homosexuals almost always act and/or dress differently from heterosexuals.
TF? Bisexuals are people who are afraid to admit to themselves their real homosexuality.
TF? Most homosexuals are unhappy with their sexual orientation and would like to become heterosexual.
TF? A homosexual orientation indicates a gender identity problem.
TF? A male homosexual can be made heterosexual by administering large doses of testosterone.
TF? People who have had same-sex sexual experiences are, by definition, homosexual in orientation.
TF? Women who have had same-sex sexual relations are more likely to be bisexual than homosexual.
TF? About 10% of American men and women have had a same-sex sexual experience.
TF? Researchers have found a higher rate of concordance for homosexuality between identical twins than between nonidentical twins.
TF? A bisexual is anyone who has had sex with both men and women.
TF? Recent studies support Kinsey's findings that 10% of American men are homosexual.
TF? The pathway to heterosexual sexual identity is smooth and uniform.
TF? Many homosexuals and bisexuals have gender dysphoria.
TF? Most lesbians have not had pleasurable sexual relations with men.
TF? Extremely effeminate ("sissy") boys always develop a homosexual orientation.
TF? If one identical twin is homosexual, the other twin always is too.
TF? Studies have found that areas of the hypothalamus (in the brain) are different in male heterosexuals and homosexuals.
TF? Most homosexuals adopt a single role ("masculine" or "feminine") in their relationships.
TF? Children raised by openly homosexual parents are more likely to develop a homosexual orientation than children raised by heterosexual parents.
Henry has had a few same-sex sexual experiences, but has had sex only with women since he turned 15 ten years ago.
Joyce has been married and enjoyed sexual relations with her husband, but now prefers sexual relations with women.
Frank has had sex with both men and women.
not enough information to make a guess
Michael believes he is a woman and has sex only with men.
Carl sometimes enjoys sex with women, but prefers sexual relations with men.
Tom is 12 years old and his few sexual experiences have been exclusively with boys his age.
not enough information to make a guess
Alice enjoys sex with men most of the time, but she often enjoys sex with women as well.
Diane has had sex only with men, but occasionally has homosexual fantasies.
Matthew occasionally goes to bathhouses and lets other men give him oral-genital sex.
not enough information to make a guess
Mary's gender identity is not consistent with her anatomical sex.
Steve is 19 years old and his only sexual experiences have been with women, but all his sexual fantasies are about men.
In this book, sexual orientation is defined as distinct preferences consistently made after ____ in the presence of clear alternatives.
Researchers believe that hormones may affect sexual orientation during which time of life? ______
before or shortly after birth
According to this chapter, biological factors probably ____ individuals to a particular sexual orientation.
The four stages of the coming-out process are ______, ______, ______, and ______.
admitting a homosexual orientation to oneself,
getting to know other homosexuals,
telling family and friends of one's sexual orientation,
complete openness about one's homosexuality
Name four unloving homosexuals who made significant contributions to humankind: _____, _____, _____, and _______.
Leonardo da Vinci
Studies have found that ______ of all couples in the US will eventually experience sexual problems
at least half
It is common for tow people in a relationship to differ in their preference for frequency and type of sex. This often results from different expectations and assumptions about sex. When this happens, it is best to consider the problem as the _______ problems. If the problems persists and it is causing stress they should seek professional help.
The field of sexual therapy really began with Masters and Johnson (1970), who relied heavily on ________ techniques.
Today, most sexual problems are treated as _____ problems, but this approach is not working well as a standalone therapy for many sexual problems.
A better, multidisciplinary approach that recognizes the interpersonal and psychological aspects of sexual behavior is the _______ approach.
Most therapists will probably take a ....and....history first
medical and sexual
For most couples the first set of general exercises will be non-demand mutual pleasuring techniques called ________
sensate focus exercise
Many sexual problems are due to a failure to resolve conflicts in other aspects of the relationship, and thus sexual therapy may also require ______ therapy.
Sexual disorders are generally classified are primary or _______ and as global or _______.
A persistent and recurrent absence of sexual fantasies, thoughts, and/or desire is generally known as ______.
hypoactive sexual desire
At the other extreme, hypersexual individuals are distinguished by the _________ with which they engage in sex
Painful intercourse, or _______, can occur in either men or women and can have a variety of causes.
The most common sexual problem specific to men under age 60 is probably _______, which is often defined as a recurrent and persistent absence of _________.
Premature ejaculation, reasonable voluntary control
Probably the most psychologically devastating male problem is ____, which can have organic and/or psychological causes.
The most common psychological cause is _______, in regards to erectile disorder.
Difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculating during patented sexual activity is called _____.
For many women, lack of sexual interest/ arousal is due to _________.
Some men suffer from benign coital cephalalgia, or __________.
headaches after orgasm
Some women experience involuntary contractions of muscles surrounding the vaginal opening when they attempt intercourse, which results in pain. ________, as it is called, usually has a psychological cause.
The vast majority of women who go to sexual therapy do so because of problems ________.
___ and ___ differences in a relationship also contribute to this difficulty
stereotypic gender roles, power
One of the first things you must do is agree on a comfortable ______ to use when talking about sex.
When talking about sexual differences or problems, be sure to emphasizes the ______ rather than the ______.
Whenever possible, begin sentences with "I" rather than _______.
It is often easier to find out about your partner's sexual desires and needs if you first _____________
However, good communication is a two-way street; it requires that you also become a good _____.
In addition to communicating verbally, we also communicate nonverbally with (give four examples) ________.
eye contact, facial expressions, interpersonal distance, touching.
In order to become a "disorder," a sexual problem generally must produce significant distress for the individual
Chuck wants to have sex twice a week but is in a relationship with Sue, who wants to have sex everyday. In this example, it is clear that Sue is hyper sexual
The most frequent sexual problem for women seeking sex therapy is difficult reaching orgasm
Stimulation of the clitoris during intercourse should not be necessary, and a woman should be able to be orgasmic through intercourse alone
Performance anxiety can cause sexual problems in men, but not women.
For an ejaculation to be considered "premature," it vernally bust occur within 1 minute of beginning sexual intercourse and without reasonable voluntary control (among other things).
Most women who have difficulty reaching orgasm do not enjoy sex.
Pharmacotherapy (e.g., Viagra) has prove to be effective stand-alone therapy for erectile dysfunction
Dyspareunia is usually caused by a physical problem
Many men with psychologically caused erectile problems get full erections during sensate focus exercises
Most women do not separate sexual desire from sexual arousal
In some cases, female orgasm problems are the result of insufficient physical stimulation.
Low sexual desire in women is usually due to low testosterone levels
therapist are in agreement that hypersexuality is a form of addiction similar to alcoholism
erectile disorders are an inevitable party of the male aging process
Most women with low sexual interest/arousal are distressed by it
Headaches during orgasm occur mainly in men
The sex therapy model presented in this chapter is applicable to most peoples of the world.
Most women need stimulation of the ______ in order to reach orgasm, even during intercourse.
Most therapists believe that the _____ position has the most erotic potential for both people during intercourse.
women on top
When a person begins to observe and evaluate his or her own sexual responses during sex, it is called ______, and can be a cause of sexual problems.
Sensate focus exercises are ______ techniques.
non-demand mutual pleasuring
In men, painful intercourse can be caused by the foreskin of the penis being too tight, a condition called _______.
Probably the most difficult sexual problem to treat successfully is ________.
hypoactive sexual desire
the word intercourse means____________
When communicating with another, it is important that there be agreement between the ________ and _______ aspects of communication.
verbal, non verbal communicating
One of the best predictors of long-term success in a relationship is the manner in which couples handle _____________.
Feeling of sadness or anxiety after otherwise physically satisfactory intercourse is called _______.
This chapter presents several normal adult sexual behaviors. "Normal" is defined from a statistical point of view, and is best thought of as a ______________ of behaviors or values. Thus, you should not regard yourself as abnormal if you have not engaged in all the behaviors discussed here.
Historically, masturbation has been presented as unnatural, immoral, and bad for one's physical and mental health. In his landmark surveys of 1948 and 1953, ___________ found that ___________% of the men and __________% of the women surveyed had masturbated, thus demonstrating that masturbation is, in fact, a very normal human sexual behavior.
More recent research shows that monthly rates of masturbation tend to ______________ for both men and women as they move through their teens, 20s, and 30s, then start to decline, and reach their lowest point when people reach their _____________ and beyond.
Although ethnic differences in masturbation rates have been found, they are decreasing over time. In particular, studies show that rates have increased among both ____________.
Latinos and African Americans
Most women masturbate by stimulating ____________, and about half have used a ___________ on at least one occasion.
the clitoris, labia minora, and/or entire vulva
Heterosexual men are less likely than _________ men to report having used a vibrator on themselves while masturbating.
homosexual or bisexual
Modern medicine has also shown that masturbation has no negative medical consequences. Most men and women masturbate even when they are in sexual relationships. In fact, studies show that the more ________________ a person has, the more likely he or she is to masturbate.
sex (or intercourse)
For both men and women, ____________ fantasies are the most common. In addition, most people have fantasized about someone else while having sex with their current partner- this is called a ______________ fantasy.
Compared with those of men, the sexual fantasies of women tend to contain more ___________. In addition, ______________ fantasies are more common among men than women, whereas _____________ fantasies are more common among women than men. Of course, just because a person fantasizes about something does not mean that he or she really wants to experience it. Fantasies are usually not an indication of sexual unhappiness or personality or psychological disorders.
romance, commitment, affection
Research on frequency of sexual intercourse reveals that most young married couples have sex approximately ____________ per week.
one to three
Survey also show that _____________ have sex less often than couples.
When we consider how long intercourse lasts, researchers have found that the entire shared event typically lasts ____________ minutes for most couples. As with frequency, sexual intercourse duration generally ___________ with age.
15 to 60
The most common position for sexual intercourse in the US is ______________-on-top, also called the _______________ position. However, sizeable numbers of men and women also prefer other positions, including the _____________ position. There is no "correct" way of having sexual intercourse except what is right for you and your partner. Making your sexual encounters spontaneous, exciting, fulfilling, and not ritualized may mean exploring a variety of times, places, and positions.
woman-on-top (or man from behind)
Oral-genital sex, properly referred to as ______________ and _____________, is common among many groups in the population. In addition, a considerable number of heterosexual couples have tried anal intercourse on at least one occasion.
However, the prevalence of these behaviors differs among various groups in the US. For example, _____________ Americans are less likely than other groups to engage in oral-genital and anal sex.
Similarly, masturbation and oral-genital sex are more commonly experienced by people with ______________ levels of education. And ____________ men are more likely than heterosexual men and women to engage in anal intercourse.
homosexual or gay
A healthy and satisfying sexual relationship can contribute to one's overall physical and emotional well-being. ______________ individuals consider sex to be a positive and good thing, and feel free to choose when, where, and with whom to engage in a particular sexual activity. Just because many people may be exploring a particular form of expression does not mean it fits into everyone's value system.
Until recently, several states had sodomy laws that prohibited __________ and/or _____________ sex between consenting adults. Most people believe that they should have the right to decide for themselves what to do in privacy, and in 2003 the US Supreme Court agreed. The same cannot be said in sodomy and other sexual behaviors are severely punished.
Very few women have sexual fantasies.
A person can be sexually healthy and choose not to have oral-genital sex, or even sexual intercourse.
Man-on-top (missionary) is the preferred position of intercourse in all cultures.
Masturbation leads to serious and negative health consequences.
Assuming that neither person has a sexually transmitted infection, oral-genital sex is no less hygienic than kissing.
Most married people who masturbate do so because they are unhappy in their sexual relationships.
The content of sexual fantasies usually does not indicate sexual unhappiness or personality or psychological problems.
Fantasizing about another person while having sex with your partner is usually an indication of a serious relationship problem.
Single people have sex much more frequently than married or cohabiting couples.
How often a couple has sexual intercourse is likely to vary over time.
Surveys have found that many people today have tried more than one position of intercourse.
Women's sexual fantasies are just as visual and sexually explicit as men's.
More people have tried oral-genital intercourse than have tried anal intercourse.
Generally speaking, men think, daydream, and fantasize about sex more often than women.
Only homosexual men can have anal intercourse.
Most people stop masturbating as soon as they establish a sexual relationship with someone.
When it comes to oral-genital sex, both men and women want to receive more of it from their partners than they are getting.
Until 2003, in many states a married couple caught having oral sex in their privacy of their own home could be sent to prison.
It is still possible in the US to prosecute people for fornication.
Couples should not engage in anal and vaginal intercourse without washing in between because of _____________.
One of the most common types of fantasy during sexual intercourse is __________________.
the replacement fantasy
A primary reason that many people continue to masturbate after forming a sexual relationship is _____________.
Couples who always have sex in the same place and in the same manner risk letting their sex lives become _________________.
Laumann and his colleagues (1994) found that the two sexual behaviors most preferred by Americans are __________________ and ________________.
watching one's partner undress
Laumann and his colleagues also found that masturbation is mostly a reflection of __________________.
a sexually active lifestyle
The preferred manner of sexual intercourse in all known cultures is _______________.
______________ is the position of intercourse usually preferred in cultures where a woman's sexual satisfaction is considered to be as important as the man's.
A sexually healthy person is someone who ___________________ and _______________.
feels comfortable with his or her sexuality; feels free to choose whether or not he or she wishes to try a variety of sexual behaviors.
Oral-genital sex is most common among _____________-educated people
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
A condition in which the testicles secrete normal amounts of testosterone during male embryonic development but the tissues do not respond to it. As a result, a clitoris, labia, and a short vagina develop, but the internal female structures do not develop because the testicles still secrete Mullerian duct-inhibitory substances.
The ability of an individual to display a variety of personality characteristics, both masculine and feminine, depending on whether a trait or behavior is appropriate in a given situation. It is often viewed as a positive characteristic that gives an individual greater adaptability
Rod-shaped structures containing the genetic material that determines a person's inherited characteristics.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
A condition in girls in which the adrenal glands excrete too much testosterone during fetal development, causing masculinization. This includes enlargement of the clitoris and labia, so that at birth the genitals are sometimes mistaken for those of a boy. Also called adrenogenital syndrome.
DHT deficiency syndrome
A type of androgen insensitivity syndrome in which, because testosterone is not converted into dihydrotestosterone, boys' external genitals do not develop properly. Development occurs at puberty with the rise in testosterone.
Disorders of sex development
Individuals with a combination of male and female anatomical features or in which chromosomal sex is inconsistent with anatomical sex.
(or sociobiological) In reference to sex differences in human behavior, states that the behavioral differences are due to the different reproductive pressures men and women faced over thousands of generations.
A personality characteristic; a cognitive focus on "an affective concern for the welfare of others."
The knowledge that one's gender is constant and will not change. This knowledge is usually acquired by age 6 or 7.
"A strong desire to be of the opposite gender or an insistence that he or she is of the other gender" that is accompanied by "clinically significant distress" (DSM-V, 2013).
One's subjective sense of being a man (or boy) or a woman (or girl). This sense is usually acquired by the age of 3.
A set of culturally specific norms concerning the expected behaviors and attitudes of men and women.
Oversimplified, preconceived beliefs about the gender roles of men and women.
Two meanings: (1) in advertising, to identify or relate to a product; (2) the adoption of the sex roles of the same-sex parent by a child
A personality characteristic; a cognitive focus on "getting the job done."
in 1 out of every 660 live male births, there is one or more extra X chromosomes (XXY or XXXY).
These biological men have both masculine characteristics, because of the Y chromosome, and feminine characteristics, because of the XX chromosome combination. They tend to be tall with long arms and have poor muscular development, enlarged breasts and hips, a small penis with shrunken testicles, and low sexual desire. Some choose to live as boys and others as girls. One of the most famous cases is Caroline Cossey, who was raised as a boy but later chose to live as a woman and became a well-known model and "James Bond girl"
Mullerian duct-inhibiting substance
A chemical secreted by the testicles during embryonic development that causes the Mullerian ducts to shrink and disappear.
Mullerian duct system
A primitive duct system found in embryos that if allowed to develop becomes the female reproductive system.
The process of internalizing society's beliefs; the manner in which a society shapes individual behaviors and expectations of behaviors.
States that the psychological differences between men and women are a social construction.
An individual whose gender identity and gender roles are opposite of those that society expects based on his or her anatomy
Adults with gender dysphoria who desire to surgically change their anatomical sex
a condition in which there is only one X chromosome (XO). It occurs in about 1 in every 2,000 to 3,000 live births. Because women with Turner's syndrome are missing a chromosome, the ovaries never develop properly; and in the absence of ovarian hormones, they also do not menstruate or develop breasts at puberty. They often report a decreased physical quality of life but generally do not have problems with gender identity
Wolffian duct system
A primitive duct system found in embryos that if allowed to develop becomes the male reproductive system.
either of the two sexes (male and female), especially when considered with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones. The term is also used more broadly to denote a range of identities that do not correspond to established ideas of male and female.
An individual with a lifelong lack of sexual attraction to men or women.
An individual with a sexual orientation toward both men and women.
Disclosing to others one's homosexual orientation, from the expression "coming out of the closet."
A term generally used to refer to male homosexuals, although in some places it is used to refer to homosexuals of either sex.
An individual with a sexual orientation primarily to members of the opposite sex.
An irrational fear of homosexual individuals and homosexuality.
An individual with a sexual orientation primarily to members of the same sex.
A female homosexual.
A same-sex sexual behavior between adult men and boys
Sexual identity development
A term for disclosing one's homosexuality or bisexuality to others.
A distinct preference for sexual partners of a particular sex in the presence of clear alternatives
Socially reinforced negative attitudes toward homosexuals, homosexual communities, and homosexual behaviors
A term used by homosexuals for a heterosexual.
term used to refer to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender individuals as a group
individuals whose sexual orientation is lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered, or who are currently questioning their sexual orientation
Letting your child know that all questions are okay and will not be met with a negative attitude
The time of life between puberty and adulthood
Older people are aware that young people have negative stereotypes about them having sexual relations.
Being perceived as receptive, a good listener, and accepting
The changes that occur in women in the few years that precede and the first year that follows menopause.
A condition in which the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and physical growth do not begin until well after they have begun in most children.
A developmental stage of life; an extended period of being a single adult that occurs between adolescence and young adulthood.
Values that are supposed to apply to all people under all circumstances.
Excessive development of the male breasts.
Excessive development of the male breasts.
Non-relationship sex without any commitment.
The term for a girl's first menstrual period.
The term for a woman's last menstrual period.
Erotic physical contact above the waist (kissing, touching breasts).
An ejaculation that occurs during sleep in teenaged boys and men; a "wet dream."
A marital relationship in which the couple agrees that it is permissible to have sexual relations outside of the marriage.
Expectations by one's peer group about how one is supposed to behave.
Non-coital sexual contact below the waist.
A condition in which puberty begins before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in boys.
The time in life when an individual first shows sexual attraction and becomes capable of reproduction
Secondary sex characteristics
Bodily changes that occur during puberty and differentiate men and women.
Knowledge about sex that is received (usually informally) from family, friends, the media, and society in general.
The practice of having a series of monogamous sexual relationships.
Values or ethics that emphasize the proper thing to do in particular situations.
A type of open marriage relationship in which a couple has extramarital relations together with other couples.
Penis in anus sex
Oral stimulation of the anus.
Oral stimulation of a woman's genitals
Oral stimulation of a man's genitals.
Self-stimulation of one's genitals
A face-to-face position of sexual intercourse in which the woman lies on her back and the man lies on top with his legs between hers. It was called this because Christian missionaries instructed people that other positions were unnatural.
Sexual fantasy in which one imagines oneself having sex with someone other than the current partner.
Sexually healthy person
Someone who feels positively about his or her sexuality and who feels free to choose whether or not to try a variety of sexual behaviors.
Sexually intrusive thoughts
(SITs) Sudden, involuntary, unwanted sexual thoughts.
it means that a large number of people engage in it (in other words, it is a relatively common behavior).
Benign coital cephalalgia
Severe headaches that start during or slightly after orgasm, usually in men.
Sexual therapy that recognizes that sexual problems are often caused by multiple factors and that effective treatments often must target a combination of biological, psychological, and interpersonal/social factors.
Therapy that views problems as resulting from faulty learning and that focuses on specific sexual behaviors and how we think and feel about them. It does not focus on past events.
The exchange of information, thoughts, ideas, or feelings.
Therapy that focuses on the overall relationship and communication skills between two people
problematic type of communication pattern commonly associated with relationship distress. One partner (typically the one who desires change and has less power) demands change while the other partner avoids the issue and disengages.
(male) Recurrent or persistent genital pain during intercourse.
Female: can also be caused by endometriosis (growth of the endometrium outside the uterus), pelvic inflammatory disease, yeast and other vaginal infections, Bartholin's gland infections, and urinary tract infections. Genital mutilation or cutting contributes to dyspareunia in women who have been subjected to these procedures. There is also evidence that psychosocial factors, including mood or anxiety disorders, past sexual abuse, relationship dissatisfaction, financial stress, and lower levels of education are associated with the likelihood of experiencing persistent painful intercourse
Dyspareunia may negatively impact other sexual (as well as nonsexual) aspects of a woman's life.
A sexual problem in which a man has persistent or recurrent difficulty getting and maintaining an erection. The problem must cause significant distress and not be attributable to some other readily identifiable nonsexual cause (e.g., mental disorder, medication, medical condition, severe life stressor)
Female orgasmic disorder
A persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase, which causes significant personal distress, and which cannot be better explained by a nonsexual mental disorder, medication, or severe relationship or life stressor (e.g., partner violence)
Female sexual interest/arousal disorder
The persistent absence or reduction of interest in sexual activity, sexual thoughts/fantasies, initiation of or receptivity to sexual activity, and sexual excitement/pleasure and genital/nongenital sensations during sexual encounters. Symptoms must cause significant distress, not be due to an identifiable nonsexual cause (e.g., mental disorder, partner violence, medication, medical condition), and not simply reflect a desire discrepancy between partners
A persistent, excessive, impulsive, and uncontrollable sexual appetite. Individuals with hypersexuality fantasize about and/or engage in sex compulsively, often to reduce anxiety, but experience little or no emotional satisfaction. Sometimes called sexual addiction or sexual compulsivity.
Hypoactive sexual desire
A sexual problem characterized by a persistent and pervasive absence of sexual interest, thoughts, and fantasies. The problem must cause significant distress and not be more readily attributable to some other nonsexual issue (e.g., mental disorder, partner violence, medication, medical condition).
Communicating your desires to another person by beginning sentences with "I," followed by your feelings, desires, or thoughts
The word means communication.
Male orgasmic disorder
A condition in which a man has difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculating (or is unable to do so at all) during partnered sexual activity. The problem must cause significant distress and not be the result of a readily identifiable nonsexual (e.g., medication, mental or physical disorder, severe life stressor) issue.
Attributing sexual problems to medical causes and treating them with medical techniques.
Some sexual problems may result, at least partly, from underlying physical or medical issues. Circulatory problems (e.g., arteriosclerosis), hormone abnormalities (e.g., low testosterone levels), or anything that causes damage to the central nervous system (e.g., diabetes, spinal cord injury) increases a person's chances of developing a sexual problem Alcohol and drugs also often cause sexual impairment, as do major mood and anxiety disorders.
Non-coital sexual pain disorder
Recurrent or persistent genital pain caused by sexual stimulation other than intercourse
Questions asked in a manner that places no limitations on your partner's response.
A rewording of the meaning expressed by someone else.
A fear of failure during sexual relations that can lead to erectile dysfunction in men and inhibited orgasm in women (and other sexual problems).
Persistent genital arousal syndrome
Persistent, intrusive, and usually distressing genital arousal without subjective feelings of desire and in the absence of sexual stimulation.
Curvature of the penis due to fibrous tissue deposits around the corpora cavernosa.
A condition in uncircumcised men in which the foreskin of the penis is too tight, causing pain during erection.
Negative affect (e.g., feelings of sadness, loneliness anxiety, and/or irritability) that is experienced after sexual intercourse that was otherwise physically satisfactory.
A stimulus that follows a response and increases the probability of the response occurring again.
(disorder) A recurrent and persistent (at least 6 months) pattern of short time to ejaculation (within 1 minute) and absence of reasonable voluntary control of ejaculation during partnered sexual activity that is accompanied by distress (for the man and his partner) and that is not readily attributable to an existing nonsexual cause (e.g., medication, mental disorder, medical condition, severe life stressor).
A painful condition in which the penis remains erect for a prolonged period of time, sometimes days.
Revealing self-relevant information (one's thoughts, feelings, and emotions) to another
Sensate focus exercises
Exercises designed to reduce anxiety and teach mutual pleasuring through non-genital touching in non-demanding situations.
An extreme form of hypoactive sexual desire in which an individual's avoidance of sex becomes phobic.
A sexual problem that produces significant distress, has been present for some minimum amount of time, and is not due to other readily identifiable nonsexual causes (e.g., medical condition, mental disorder, relationship distress, external stressors, medication, substance use).
These histories are very thorough, and the length of time devoted to a history will depend on how candid the client is about his or her past experiences. Some therapists prefer to work with couples because "There is no such thing as an uninvolved partner" Even when a person's sexual problem developed before the current relationship, the partner is involved because that issue is now part and parcel of their union. In fact, when one partner has a sexual problem, it is common for the other partner to develop one as well
Observing and evaluating one's own sexual responses. This generally causes distraction, with subsequent erectile and/or orgasm problems.
A recurrent or persistent sexual problem in women in which involuntary spasms of the muscles surrounding the vagina cause closure of the vaginal opening; this makes insertion of any object (penis, finger, tampon) difficult and/or painful, despite the woman's wish to do so.
Questions that call for a simple one-word "yes" or "no" response. These should be avoided when striving for communication.
One that has been widely adopted by the popular press and general public (and some therapists) is sexual addiction or sex addiction. However, many scholars object to this label on the grounds that hypersexuality does not meet the physiological and psychological requirements of a true addiction (e.g., dependency, tolerance, withdrawal). For example, unlike other addictions (such as alcohol or drug addiction), the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of hypersexuality generally decrease over time and "tend to be fairly transient for most people"
Other sets by this creator
Social Psychology review game
Human sexual behavior study guides
Know for class tomorrow
Test 2 concepts
Pretend that you are attending a professional tennis match with an economist, a political scientist, a psychologist, and a sociologist. Link each of the questions below to the discipline most likely to give a complete answer. a. How did the hot dogs get to be five dollars? b. Why do some athletes fall apart after a bad call? c. What is the socioeconomic status of the players? d. Does tennis reflect mainstream values? e. How did Americans lose their dominance in this sport? f. Why does it seem that all tennis courts are located in wealthy neighborhoods?
How does telling a friend about a trip you took last summer show how language frees humans from the limits of time and place?
Describe the relationship between religion and political allegiance in the U.S.
A group of lower-class youths are accused of a crime for behavior that higher-status teens have engaged in without punishment. What sociological term describes this process?