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Base line

An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.


The science of making maps.


Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.

Geographic Information System (GIS)

A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.

Global Positioning System (GPS)

A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.

Greenwich Mean Time

The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitude.

International Date Line

180 Longitude, crossing East moves back a day, crossing West moves forward one day


Lines running East/West


The position of anything on Earth's surface.


Lines running North/South


A two-dimensional representation of Earth's surface


An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.


A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.


A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.

Prime meridian

The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.


The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.


An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.

Regional Studies

Analyzing social and physical aspects of a region

Remote sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.


the relationship between the size of something on a map and in real life


The physical character of a place.


The location of a place relative to other places.


The physical gap or interval between two places.


The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.


A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.

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