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Terms in this set (221)
What is the site of the neurosomas, dendrites, nuclei and synapses in the brain?
Gray matter forms a surface layer called the ___ over the cerebrum and cerebellum. It as well forms deeper masses called ___ surrounded by white matter
Does white matter lie deeper than gray matter in the brain?
in brain, white matter is composed of ___
tracts or bundles of myelinated axons
White matter tracts get their white color from __?
Cerebral refers only to the cerebrum NOT the ____
Describe the cerebral cortex.
Superficial gray matter of cerebrum
There are no nuclei in which matter?
The prominent C-shaped band of nerve tracts that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres to each other is referred to as the ______.
What are the 2 layers of the dura mater?
outer periosteal layer and inner meningeal layer
What is the dura mater composed of
dense fibrous connective tissue
The dural sinus that is located just under the cranium along the midsagittal line is the _____sinus.
What are dural sinuses
spaces that collect blood that has circulated through the brain
Two major dural sinuses are
Superior sagittal sinus & transverse sinus. (These meet like a T at the back of the brain and empty into jugular veins at the back of the neck.)
The CSF escapes through three pores in the walls of the fourth ventricle which leads into the ______.
The blood-brain barrier is absent from patches called circumventricular organs (CVOs). CVOs are located on the walls of the ______. Select all that apply.
3 and 4 ventricle
Arachnoid granulations absorb CSF from the subarachnoid space to the ______.
superior sagittal sinus
The glia that are instrumental in stimulating the formation of tight junctions to constitute the blood-brain barrier are the ______.
The nerve fibers connecting the brain to the spinal cord passing through the medulla are ______.
ascending sensory and descending motor
The pons develops from an embryonic secondary brain vesicle called the
The metencephalon develops into the
pons and cerebellum
pons consists mainly of two pairs of thick stalks called:
The cerebellar peduncles from pons does what?
connect the cerebellum to the pons and midbrain
What nerves begin and end in the pons?
Cranial nerves V-VIII
What are the sensory and motor functions of cranial nerves V-VIII?
Sensory functions of these four nerves include hearing, equilibrium, taste, and facial sensations such as touch and pain. Their motor functions include eye movements, facial expressions, chewing, swallowing, and the secretion of saliva and tears.
The pyramidal decussation which occurs near the caudal end of of the pyramids represents crossover of the _____ tract.
The pons develops from the ______.
The _____ is the short segment of brainstem which connects the pons and the diencephalon, it is also called the mesencephalon. The midbrain is an important relay area between the higher brain and the spinal cord.
During embryonic development, the midbrain does not divide and retains the name
Inferior olivary nucleus
Relays signals from brain and spinal cord to the cerebellum
Occupy the pyramids and consist of nerve fibers that descend from the cerebral cortex
Gracile and cuneate nuclei
Origin of second-order nerve fibers that decussate to form the medial lemniscus.
Carries motor signals to the cervical spinal cord mediating reflex movements of the head and neck.
Cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, and XII begin or end in the ___________
Cranial nerves V through VIII begin or end in the _____
Cranial nerves III and IV, both concerned with eye movements, originate in the _____
contents of diencephalon
thalamus, pineal gland, infundibulum, lateral geniculate body, medial geniculate body, optic tract, hypothalamus
contents of midbrain (mesencephalon)
Cranial nerves III and IV
superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, cerebral peduncle,
central (periaqueductal) gray substance, tectum, superior colliculi, tegmentum, substantia nigra, cerebral crura
contents of pons (metencephalon)
Cranial nerves V and VIII
2 pairs of cerebellar peduncles, Continuations of two spinal cord sensory tracts (spinothalamic tract and the anterior spinocerebellar tract), vermis,
contains the spinothalamic tract en route to the thalamus, and the anterior spinocerebellar tract, carrying signals en route to the cerebellum
anterior spinocerebellar tract
carrying signals en route to the cerebellum
contents of medulla oblongata
nucleus gracilis, tectospinal tract, inferior olivary nuclei, corticospinal tract, reticular formation, gracile and cuneate nuclei, posterior spinocerebellar tract, fourth ventricle
Cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, and XII
Midbrain structures include the
ascending fibers of the medial lemniscus
continuations of the reticular formation
cranial nerves III and IV
Cross section contents:
central (periaqueductal) gray substance, tectum, superior colliculi, tegmentum, substantia nigra, cerebral crura
The tectum is the ______ part of the midbrain.
The brainstem section that connects the hindbrain and the forebrain is the
The midbrain structures that function in visual attention, such as visually tracking moving objects and reflexively turning the eyes and head in response to a visual stimulus are the ______.
Midbrain structures that receive and process auditory input and then relay the information to other parts of the brain are the ______.
Corticospinal and other tracts from the cerebrum descend through the cerebral crura of the midbrain on their way to lower levels of the brainstem and spinal cord. The cerebral crura along with midbrain tegmentum and substantial nigra collectively form the
The cerebral aqueduct, substantial nigra, colliculi and cranial nerves III and IV nuclei are all components of the ______.
The posterior part of the midbrain, which includes the corpora quadrigemina, is called the
The reticular formation is a loosely organized web of gray matter that ______.
runs vertically through all levels of the brainstem
The system that consists of reticular formation nuclei that modulate activity of the cerebral cortex and functions to maintain consciousness is called the _____________ system or RAS.
reticular activating system
extrathalamic cortical modulatory system
The midbrain structure(s) which consist(s) of axons that transmit motor impulses from the cerebral cortex to the pons, medulla oblongata and spinal cord is the ______ which also consists of the midbrain tegmentum and substantia nigra.
The portion of the cerebellum that connects the right and left hemispheres is called the ____
The reticular formation is defined less by anatomical boundaries and ______.
occupies the space between the white fiber tracts and the brainstem nuclei
The slender, transverse, parallel folds of the cerebellum are specifically called ___
The brain stem's reticular activating system functions primarily to ___
ignore repetitive inconsequential stimuli while remaining sensitive to others
White matter located in the deeper aspects of the cerebellum exhibiting a branching fern-like pattern is referred to as the ______.
The component of the brain which is primarily responsible for equilibrium, motor coordination, and memory of learned motor skills is the ______
The most distinctive, unusually large cells of the cerebellum with thick dendrites compressed into a single plane are the ______ cells.
The diencephalon structure that is located on each side of the brain at the rostral end of the brainstem beneath the cerebral hemispheres is the
The thalamus is described as the "gateway to the cerebral cortex." Speculate why this makes sense.
Because nearly all sensory input from the body passes by way of synapses in the thalamus.
The hypothalamic thermostat monitors body temperature and sends afferent signals to hypothalamic ______ or ______ centers to maintain thermal homeostasis.
heat-promoting or heat-losing
The neuron of the of the hypothalamus that responds to changes in the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid and stimulates water-seeking (drinking) behavior when the body is dehydrated is the ______.
The diencephalon structure that is located on each side of the brain at the rostral end of the brainstem is the ______.
The thalamus has a role in ______.
The region of the diencephalon that contains the pineal gland is referred to as the ______.
The structure of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the walls of the third ventricle is the ______.
The relay from the limbic system to the midbrain is provided by the ___ of the epithalamus.
Which area of the brain functions to maintain thermal homeostasis?
The cerebrum is divided into ______ hemispheres. (by the longitudinal fissure)
Voluntary motor initiation, memory, mood, emotion, social judgment and aggression are the chief functions of the ______ lobe of the cerebrum.
The great majority of cerebral commissural tracts pass through the ___
The frontal lobe and parietal lobe of the cerebral hemisphere are separated by the ______.
The cerebral lobe that is responsible for receiving and interpreting input from the general senses, for taste and for some visual processing is the ______ lobe.
The prominent C-shaped band of nerve tracts that connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres to each other is referred to as the ______.
Beginning at the central sulcus and extending caudally to the parieto-occipital sulcus describes the boundaries of the ______ lobe of the cerebrum.
The groove in the cerebrum that separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe is the ____
The groove in the cerebrum that separates the parietal lobe from the temporal lobe is the ______.
Fibers that connect different gyri within a single lobe of the cerebrum are ______.
short association fibers
Neural integration occurs in ____
The only cerebral neurons whose fibers leave the cortex and enter the cerebral white matter to connect with other parts of the CNS are the _____ cells.
White matter tracts that cross from one cerebral hemisphere to the other to enable the two cerebral hemispheres to communicate with each other are the ______.
______ tracts are bundles of myelinated nerve fibers and glia which connect different regions within the same cerebral hemisphere.
The part of the brain that serves as an important center for emotion and learning is the ____system
Fibers that connect different lobes within a cerebral hemisphere are referred to as ____association fibers.
The limbic structures located in the temporal lobe include ______.
the amygdala and the hippocampus
The cerebral cortex consists of ______ matter.
Two of the limbic system structures, the hippocampus and the amygdala, are located in the medial ______ lobe of the cerebrum.
medial temporal lobe
The two nuclei that form the lens-shaped lentiform nucleus of the basal nuclei are the _____,
putamen and globus pallidus
Sensory perception, thought, reasoning, judgment, memory, imagination and intuition occur in _____ areas throughout the cerebral cortex.
Vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste and smell, are limited to the head and require the sense organs and are classified as ______ senses.
immediately rostral to hippocampus in the medial temporal lobe
The three agreed-upon nuclei that collectively comprise the basal nuclei include the ______.
caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus
The ability to integrate information so that we can identify what we see takes place within the ______.
visual association area
The _______ cortex only receives visual stimuli with no interpretation of identity.
primary visual cortex
The _____ cortex integrates information to create a sense of the overall flavor and desirability (or rejection) of food.
Regions of the cerebral cortex where cognition, sensory perception, thought, reasoning, judgment, memory, imagination and intuition occur are called ______.
The primary auditory cortex is distributed between two regions of each cerebral hemisphere. Identify these two regions.
Sensory receptors for equilibrium are located in ______.
The perception of sound waves in the primary auditory cortex is called
Association areas for equilibrium are located in the roof of the ______.
Somatotopic representation of regions of the body that are mapped onto the somatosensory cortex is referred to as a sensory _____
The primary somesthetic cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus of the_____ lobe.
The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are called ___ motor neurons.
The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus whose fibers end in the nuclei of the brainstem are called ______.
upper motor neurons
Neurons whose axons project from the spinal cord or the brainstem to innervate skeletal muscles are called ____ motor
True or false: The distorted appearance of the sensory homunculus is explained by the fact that the amount of cerebral tissue devoted to a given body region is proportional to how sensitive that particular region is NOT to its size.
Basal nuclei receive signals from the which of the following?
reason: Basal nuclei receive input from the midbrain and motor areas of the cerebral cortex and return signals to these same areas. These nuclei play a role in the coordination of posture and movement.
The primary somesthetic association area is located in the ______ lobe and the roof of the lateral sulcus.
The primary motor cortex is located in the precentral gyrus of the _____ lobe.
Wernicke's area functions in ______.
interpreting written and spoken language
Recognition of spoken and written language is the primary function of Wernicke's area which is located posterior to the lateral sulcus usually in the ____cerebral hemisphere.
Basal nuclei play a role in the coordination of motor movements and posture.
The inferior prefrontal cerebral cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for the formation of spoken words. This region is referred to as ______.
The inability to use or comprehend words is referred to as ______.
The area of the limbic system recognized as being critical to the creation of long-term declarative memories is the ______.
Aphasia may result when a patient has an injury in which of these areas of the brain? (Mark all that apply)
The range of mental processes by which knowledge is acquired and used is called ______.
There are ______ pairs of cranial nerves.
but 24 total cranial nerves
For most people, sequential and analytical reasoning employed in such fields as science and math is localized in the left cerebral hemisphere also referred to as the _______ hemisphere
The optic nerve (II) originates at the _____ and terminates at the ______.
thalamus and midbrain
Twelve pair of nerves that arise from the base of the brain, exit through skull foramina, and lead to muscles and sense organs primarily of the head and neck are classified as _____.
Motor impulses which control movements of the eyeball, and upper eyelid as well as pupillary constriction and focusing are transmitted by the ______ nerve.
The olfactory nerve (I) originates in the ______ and terminates at the _______.
mucosa of the nasal cavity
The optic nerve (II) conveys ______ impulses.
The trochlear nerve passes through the _______ to exit the cranium.
superior orbital fissure
The trigeminal nerve has ______ divisions.
Identify the cranial nerves that control movements of the eye
IV. Trochlear nerve
VI. Abducens nerve
III. Oculomotor nerve
NOT OPTIC NERVE BC ONLY CONTROLS EYE VISION
The oculomotor nerve originates in nuclei of the ______.
The trochlear nerve originates from a nucleus in the ______.
Where does the abducens nerve pass through the cranium?
Superior orbital fissure
The trigeminal nerve transmits what type of impulses?
The abducens nerve conveys primarily ______ fibers.
The oculomotor nerve transmits _______ impulses.
The facial nerve conveys motor innervation to muscles of facial expression via its ______ branches.
The function of the vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve is to transmit _____
sensory signals for hearing and equilibrium
Vestibulocochlear nerve fibers conveying the special sense of hearing terminate at the junction of the _____.
medulla and the pons
Where does the abducens nerve originate?
Identify the functions of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve. Select all that apply.
Transmits taste, touch, pain and temperature information from the tongue
Controls secretion of saliva.
Regulates blood pressure.
The sensory component of the glossopharyngeal nerve terminates in the medulla oblongata while the motor portion terminates in ______.
the parotid gland
glands of the posterior tongue
Motor control to many of the muscles of facial expression as well as taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue is provided by the _____ nerve.
The vagus (X) nerve transmits what type of impulses?
Sensory signals for hearing and equilibrium from the inner ear are conveyed by the _______ cranial nerve.
Where does the motor portion of the vagus (X) nerve originate?
The vestibulocochlear nerve passes through the cranium in the ______.
internal acoustic meatus
The primary type of impulse transmitted by the accessory (XI) nerve is _____.
What type of impulses are transmitted by the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve?
Sensory information arising from the pharynx, middle and outer ear, and the posterior one-third of the tongue is conveyed by the _____ cranial nerve.
Where does the accessory (XI) nerve originate?
medulla oblongata and C1-C6
Primary motor control of tongue movements is provided by the _____ cranial nerve.
Where does the vagus (X) nerve pass through the cranium?
Motor control to the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles used in moving the head, neck, and shoulders is conveyed by the _____ nerve.
Cranial nerves are traditionally classified as ______.
motor, sensory, mixed
Both sensory and motor impulses to the head, neck and thoracic regions controlling salivation, swallowing, gagging and regulation of blood pressure and respiration are conveyed by the _____ nerve.
Primary nerve that controls movement of the facial muscles
Primary nerve that transmits sensory information from the face
Controls movement of the eye, constriction of the pupil and focusing
Controls cardiac, pulmonary, digestive and urinary functions
Controls swallowing and movements of the head, neck and shoulders
Transmits information for the sense of smell
Controls lateral movement of the eye
Transmits information for the sense of hearing and balance
controls the secretion of the salivary glands and swallowing. Also, transmits taste, touch, pressure and pain sensations from the tongue
Controls movements of the tongue and swallowing
Where does the accessory (XI) nerve pass through the cranium?
Cranial nerves that convey motor pathways have cells bodies located in _____.
Cranial nerves that convey motor pathways terminate on ______.
Cranial nerves that convey sensory pathways originate in _____.
Cranial nerves that convey sensory pathways terminate in
The hypoglossal (XII) nerve transmits what type of impulses?
It must be kept in mind that cranial nerves that are traditionally classified as motor not only stimulate muscle contractions but also contain fibers of _____ primarily from the muscles that they innervate.
Some of the gross anatomical changes seen in the aged brain include _____.
cerebral gyri are narrower
thinner cerebral cortex
more space between the brain and the meninges
cerebral sulci are wider
The autonomic nervous system transmits _____.
motor impulses to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands.
The motor nervous system division that has skeletal muscles as effectors is referred to as ______.
The nervous system division that is usually under involuntary control is the ______.
When the autonomic nerves to visceral effectors are severed these effectors often exhibit denervation ____
Identify the characteristics of a visceral reflex.
Place the components of a visceral reflex arc in order.
2. afferent neuron
4. Efferent neuron
An example of a response that occurs during the sympathetic fight-or-flight response is _____.
increased ATP production
Identify the components of a visceral reflex arc.
Baroreceptor in a blood vessel
The simultaneous background rate of activity of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS on the body is referred to as ______ tone.
What does the axon of a postganglionic neuron synapse with?
Which describes a preganglionic neuron in the ANS?
It has its cell body in the spinal cord or the brainstem and its axon terminates in a ganglion.
The division of the ANS that has relatively short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers is the _____ division.
Identified by the regions of the spinal cord from which it arises, the sympathetic nervous system is also called the ______ division
Where are the cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic fibers located in the spinal cord?
Lateral gray horn
Which ganglia extend from the cervical region to the coccygeal region along the vertebral column?
From which regions of the CNS do the nerves of the parasympathetic nervous system arise? Select all that apply.
Regarding the length of nerve fibers, the sympathetic division has ______ preganglionic fibers and ______ postganglionic fibers.
Myelinated preganglionic sympathetic axons that extend from the spinal nerve to the nearest sympathetic ganglion are located within the _____ communicating rami.
What type of fibers travel via the gray rami?
Which describes the sympathetic chain ganglia?
A longitudinal series of ganglia adjacent to both sides of the vertebral column
Collateral sympathetic ganglia as well as sympathetic and parasympathetic axons that send fibers to the abdominal and pelvic organs are all components of the ______.
abdominal aortic plexus
The splanchnic nerves contain preganglionic sympathetic fibers that supply the abdominal aortic plexus
The carotid plexus sends its fibers primarily to effectors in the head
The three collateral ganglia that contribute to the abdominal aortic plexus and provide nerve fibers that supply abdominal and pelvic viscera are the ______.(Select three).
inferior mesenteric ganglion
superior mesenteric ganglion
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers typically synapse with sympathetic chain ganglia unless they pass through, forming ____ nerves that instead enter collateral ganglia.
The adrenal gland has two parts, an outer rim called the ___ and an inner portion called the ____
The adrenal medulla develops from the same embryonic tissue as the ___ division of the ANS.
The medulla of the adrenal gland secretes the following hormones. (Mark all that apply.)
This is secreted by cells in the adrenal cortex.
The network of sympathetic and parasympathetic axons that wraps around the aorta is referred to as the ____ plexus.
abdominal aortic plexus
The three collateral ganglia of the abdominal plexus are the ______.
celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric ganglia
Regarding the adrenal gland, which of the following pairings is correct?
Which type of neurons make up the adrenal medulla?
Parasympathetic fibers which regulate the secretion of saliva from the parotid gland are carried by the
The nerve networks (plexuses) that receive parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve include the ______.
The cranial nerve that regulates secretion from the tear glands, the salivary glands and the nasal mucus glands is the __ nerve
The parasympathetic fibers that arise from S2-S4 form the pelvic ___ nerves which contribute to the inferior hypogastric plexus.
Functions of the enteric nervous system include which of the following?
To regulate motility through the digestive tract
To regulate the secretion of digestive enzymes
The division of the ANS that has general and widespread effects is the ____ division.
The structures that are innervated by pelvic splanchnic nerves from spinal cord levels S2-S4 include
Synapses between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system occur in ganglia located ______.
near the spinal column
A plexus of neurons that is embedded in the wall of the digestive organs and does not originate from the brain or spinal cord is referred to as the ____ nervous system.
The sympathetic nervous system will ______ urine production and the parasympathetic nervous system will ______ urine production.
decrease, have no effect upon
Contraction of the urinary bladder and thus emptying of the bladder occurs due to stimulation by the _____ nervous system; where the _____ nervous system has no effect on emptying of the urinary bladder.
The following statements are TRUE regarding nicotinic receptors.
Nicotinic receptors work by opening ligand gated ion channels, inducing an excitatory potential on the postsynaptic membrane.
ACh has an excitatory effect on nicotinic receptors located on cells of the adrenal medulla and at the neuromuscular junction.
ACh has an excitatory effect on nicotinic receptors.
Which type of receptor can either be inhibited or excited by the binding of acetylcholine?
The receptors that occur at synapses of all autonomic ganglia, on cells of the adrenal medulla and at the neuromuscular junction are ____ receptors.
Nerve fibers that secrete norepinephrine (noradrenaline) are the ______.
postganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic division
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