Physics Vocab Ch. 20 21 22 23 24

Vocabulary for Physics Chapter 20, 21, 22, 23, & 24
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Electrostatics
Study of electric charges at rest or in motion and the forces between them.
Neutral
Number of protons and electrons are equal
Insulator
A material that current cannot pass through easily
Conductor
A material that allows energy (electrons) to pass through very easily.
Electroscope
A device that is used to detect electric charges and consists of a metal knob connected by a metal stem to two thin metal leaves.
Charging by Conduction
Charging an object by allowing it to come into contact with an object that already has an electrical charge
Charging by Induction
the rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object
Grounding
Allowing charges to move freely back and forth between the ground and a conductor.
Coulomb's Law
The magnitude of force between two charges is proportional to the magnitude of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
Coulomb
SI unit of charge
Elementary Charge
the smallest unit of electric charge that is possible in ordinary matter, represented by the lower case letter "e"
Electric Field
E=F/q
Electric Field Line
Imaginary lines that show the direction in which a positive test charge is accelerated by the coulombic force due to the electric field of a source charge.
Electric Potential Difference
The change in potential energy per unit charge in an electric field.
Volt
One joule per coulomb
Equipotential
the electric potential difference between two or more positions is zero
Capacitor
An electrical device used to store electrical charge
Capacitance
Measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge, calculated by the ratio of the magnitude of charge on one plate to the voltage across the two plates, expressed in SI units, farads.
Ampere
A unit of measure of the rate of current flow. One ampere equals one coulomb per second.
Resistance
Property determining how much current will flow
Resistor
An electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
Parallel Connection
connection of two or more electrical devices between two points to provide more than one current path
Series Connection
a type of connection in which there is only a single current path
Superconductor
A material that has almost zero resistance when it is cooled to low temperatures.
Kilowatt-hour
a unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour
Series Circuit
A circuit in which all parts are connected end to end to provide a single path of current.
Equivalent Resistance
the resistance of a single resistor that's equal to the combined resistance of multiple resistors; for series add them, for parallel use reciprocal formula
Conventional Current
Current that flows from the positive side of the battery to the negative side. This is the way current is drawn in circuit diagrams, even though it is wrong.
Battery
A device that produces electricity
Electric Circuit
A complete, unbroken path through which electric charges can flow
Voltage Divider
the point on a circuit where the voltages are split between the resistors; two resistors in a series across a voltage source
Parallel Circuit
A closed electrical circuit in which the current is divided into two or more paths and then returns via a common path to complete the circuit.
Short Circuit
A circuit that forms a direct path across a voltage source (with little or no resistance) so that a very high and possibly unsafe electric current flows.
Fuse
Electrical device that can interrupt the flow of electrical current when it is overloaded
Circuit Breaker
A switch that opens when current in a circuit is too high.
Ground-Fault Interrupter
a device that contains an electronic circuit that detects small current differences caused by an extra current path; it opens the circuit, prevents electrocution, and often is required as a safety measure for bathroom, kitchen, and exterior outlets
Combination Series-Parallel Circuit
a complex electric circuit that includes both series and parallel branches
ammeter
A meter that measures the flow of electrical current in amperes
Electric Current
Flow of charged particles
Voltmeter
A device used to measure voltage, or electrical potential energy difference
Polarized
A north and south pole
Magnetic Field
Field Vectors created by moving charges and permanent magnets that in turn exert a magnetic force on moving charges and current-carrying wires.
Magnetic Flux
the lines of force surrounding a permanent magnet or a moving charged particle
First Right-Hand Rule
Grasp the wire with your right hand, keep your thumb pointed in the direction of the conventional current flow.
Solenoid
A coil of wire that produces a magnetic field when carrying an electric current
Electromagnet
A magnet that is created when a current flows through a wire coil
Second Right-Hand Rule
a method used to determine the direction of the field produced by an electromagnet relative to the flow of conventional current
Domain
Group of magnetic fields of electrons alligned in the same way
Third Right-Hand Rule
can be used to determine the direction of the force on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field
Galvanometer
Instrument that uses an electromagnet to measure electric current.
Electric Motor
A device that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy
Armature
Wire coil in an electric motor