Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads


If hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition, what can help us sift reality from illusions?
A. scientific bias
B. scientific inquiry
C. scientific learning
D. scientific phenomenon


Historically, there have been many examples of "crazy sounding" ideas (e.g., out-of-body travel, extraterrestrial meteorites, Bigfoot, and others). The scientific approach for exploring these ideas is to:
A. take a leap of faith and accept them at face value.
B. reject them as relying on fantasy as opposed to evidence.
C. subject them to scrutiny.
D. acknowledge that they may be beyond science.


Jane and Sarah were watching the evening news when viewers were asked to call in about the city's proposal to raise taxes. Later in the broadcast, the results were posted. Both Jane and Sarah were skeptical of the 68% of the viewers who supported the tax increase. They wondered who the people that called in were. Jane and Sarah are demonstrating:
A. overconfident thinking.
B. critical thinking.
C. humility.
D. rhetoric.


A direct relationship is a _____________ correlation, whereas an indirect relationship is a ______________ correlation.
A. negative; neutral
B. positive; negative
C. positive; neutral
D. negative; positive


Drug R is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The hypothesis is that 200 mg of Drug R will reduce GAD symptoms by 25% as evidenced by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The INDEPENDENT variable is:
A. 200 mg of Drug R.
C. the Hamilton Anxiety Scale.
D. 25%.


In order to assess whether sexual stimulation affects sense of humor, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or non-sexually stimulating movie scenes. The couples then watched a comedy skit and the researchers measured how much they laughed. In this research, the independent variable consisted of:
A. the level of sexual stimulation.
B. marital status.
C. reactions to the comedy skit.
D. sense of humor.


One way to not be misled by "top-of-the-head" estimates is to make sure to use basic _____________ in everyday reasoning.
A. news sources
B. common sense
C. statistical principles
D. illusory correlations


Which of the following attitudes has helped to make modern science possible?
A. gullibility
B. cynicism
C. skepticism
D. overconfidence


A person who engages in ______________ does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Instead, s/he analyzes assumptions, looks into hidden values, and tries to determine if conclusions are warranted.
A. overconfident thinking
B. rhetoric
C. critical thinking
D. humility


Jamie and Robin were sure that they had answered most of their exam questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates:
A. the hindsight bias.
B. random assignment.
C. illusory correlation.
D. overconfidence.


One strength of the case study method is that:
A. its findings can be easily generalized.
B. it can easily be replicated.
C. it suggests hypotheses for future study.
D. it is less vulnerable to bias than other methods.


Every twenty-fifth person who ordered a subscription to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete an opinion survey. The researchers were most clearly employing a technique known as:
A. the double-blind procedure.
B. naturalistic observation.
C. replication.
D. random sampling.


Drug R is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The hypothesis is that 200 mg of Drug R will reduce GAD symptoms by 25% as evidenced by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The DEPENDENT variable is:
A. a 25% reduction of GAD symptoms.
C. 200 mg of Drug R.
D. the Hamilton Anxiety Scale.


One way to not be misled by "top-of-the-head" estimates is to make sure to use basic _____________ in everyday reasoning.
A. statistical principles
B. common sense
C. news sources
D. illusory correlations


You just found out that the homecoming queen and captain of the football team from your high school are splitting up. You think back to the last time you saw them together and have the feeling that you could have predicted their divorce. Which of the following is the most likely cause for your feeling?
A. hindsight bias
B. inferential thinking
C. astute observation powers
D. critical thinking


The problem with common sense is that it is "after the fact." In other words, common sense does not help us:
A. predict the future.
B. interpret findings.
C. observe phenomena.
D. discern relationships.


Jamie and Robin were sure that they had answered most of their exam questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates:
A. random assignment.
B. illusory correlation.
C. overconfidence.
D. the hindsight bias.


A researcher wants to determine if a new regime of yoga and vitamin A will improve test-taking skills in college students. To ensure that participants in the experimental condition (i.e., those who will do yoga and receive Vitamin A) are very similar to participants in the control condition (i.e., those who will be on a waiting list, thus receiving no treatment), the researcher should:
A. let the participants choose whether they want to be in the experimental or control condition.
B. randomly assign the participants to the conditions.
C. ask for volunteers from a local yoga school.
D. choose the first people who signed up for the study to be in the control condition.


Jack is a graduate student in sociology who cannot understand why the people who took his survey responded poorly to his questions on welfare reform. His advisor tells him that he may want to rephrase them because the wording of the questions most likely:
A. affected the opinions respondents expressed.
B. was unrepresentative.
C. reflected accurately the opinions respondents expressed.
D. was biased.


Research results showed that experimental Drug R had a minimal to modest effect in reducing the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The hypothesis that 200 mg of Drug R will reduce GAD symptoms by 25% as evidenced by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale needs to be revised by increasing to 300 mg. The variable that will change in response to the increase is the:
A. control condition.
B. independent variable.
C. experimental method.
D. dependent variable.


One way to not be misled by "top-of-the-head" estimates is to make sure to use basic _____________ in everyday reasoning.
A. illusory correlations
B. common sense
C. statistical principles
D. news sources

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have forseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language.)


a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy.


the science of behavior and mental processes

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.


the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

levels of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a polulation because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.


an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.


a testable prediction, often applied by a theory

clinical psychology

a branch of study that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.

control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.


a technique for ascertaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differents between those assigned to the different groups.


repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.


the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

independent variable

the experimental factor that is being manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.


a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable).


the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.


a study method inforporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking.


agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.


a developing human organism from 9 weeks after the conception to birth


a developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month


the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

sensori motor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressins and motor activities.

stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning at about 8 months of age.


a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.


the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.


interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.


an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.


a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.


the principle (part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

critical period

an oprimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.

basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.


biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.

theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.


the process by which certain form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.


in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.


adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

double blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment of placebo. Commony used in drug-evaluation studies.

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.

social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.

secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair


the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

primary sex characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.


the first menstrual period.


our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.


the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.


the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.


The phase during which the blastocyst makes its way down the fallopian tubes to the uterus is called the ________ phase.
A. embryonic
B. differentiation
C. germinal
D. fetal


The embryonic phase begins when:
A. a female's egg is fertilized by a male's sperm.
B. the fetus become viable.
C. the blastocyst implants itself in the uterine wall.
D. the organs mature.


The developing embryo is most vulnerable to disease and toxins during the ________ phase.
A. embryonic
B. germinal
C. fetal
D. placental


Differentiation refers to the process in which:
A. the zygote begins to divide into many cells.
B. the fetus' arms and legs grow dramatically.
C. implantation occurs.
D. cells are developing into distinct organ systems.


About 23 or 24 weeks after conception, fetuses achieve ________, which means that they have a chance of surviving if born at this time.
A. implantation
B. viability
C. longevity
D. survivability


A young child who sees a cow for the first time calls it a "doggie." This illustrates the process of:
A. accommodation.
B. object permanence.
C. conservation.
D. reversible thinking.
E. assimilation.


A child's mental framework for interpreting reality becomes increasingly complex through the process of:
A. conservation.
B. assimilation.
C. reversible thinking.
D. accommodation.
E. egocentrism.


A young child is shown two identical balls of clay. When one is rolled into a long rope, the child perceives it to contain more clay. This child is unable to understand:
A. object permanence.
B. conservation.
C. assimilation.
D. accommodation.


Lisa's incorrect responses to the checkers problem indicate that she is still in the ________ stage of cognitive development.
A. formal operational
B. preoperational
C. concrete operational
D. sensorimotor


Both Mike and Leah respond correctly to the waterjar problem. This illustrates that they have developed what Piaget calls:
A. formal operations.
B. object permanence.
C. reversible thinking.
D. accommodation.


The psychologist who popularized the notion that identity formation was the chief challenge of adolescence was:
A. Albert Bandura.
B. Sigmund Freud.
C. Jean Piaget.
D. Erik Erikson.


James Marcia built on Erikson's work by proposing that identity formation consists of exploration and:
A. evaluation.
B. commitment.
C. development.
D. introspection.


Eighteen-year-old Mae can't understand how her older brother could be so sure of his religious beliefs and the direction he wants his life to take. She has been reading about different faiths, but she certainly hasn't made up her mind about what she believes or what she would like to do with her life. Marcia would say that she is in the ________ category of identity formation.
A. moratorium
B. foreclosure
C. diffusion
D. identity achievement


Adolescents who automatically adopt a view opposite to their parents without carefully considering their own opinions can be said to have formed a _______ identity.
A. normal
B. positive
C. diffuse
D. negative


Researchers have found that diffusion and ________ are common in early adolescence.
A. identity achievement
B. moratorium
C. foreclosure
D. commitment


Senescence occurs:
A. when a person enters late adulthood and experiences mental decline.
B. as soon as overall growth stops.
C. at puberty.
D. at middle age when the first signs of physical decline begin to appear.


Which of the following is characteristic of middle adulthood?
A. We are at our physical peak.
B. Physical decline becomes very noticeable.
C. We begin to notice changes in appearance and the senses.
D. We haven't quite reached our physical peak.


Most older adults lose inches in height due to settling of the vertebrae. Some people develop a more pronounced stoop due to a disorder of the bones called:
A. arthritis.
B. rheumatism.
C. phlebitis.
D. osteoporosis.


As people age, they experience decline in all their senses, but hearing and ________ are especially affected.
A. taste
B. smell
C. vision
D. touch


Seventy-five-year-old June is experiencing pain in her knees during her morning walk. She could be suffering from the condition called:
A. osteoarthritis.
B. osteoporosis.
C. artherosclerosis.
D. emphysema.


What early philosopher believed that the mind is a blank slate before environmental experiences write their story?
A. Plato
B. John Locke
C. Sigmund Freud
D. René Descartes


Dualism is the belief that:
A. all knowledge comes from sensory experiences.
B. psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
C. some ideas are innate and inborn.
D. the mind and body are two separate entities.


Which pioneer demonstrated through research that our mental processes could be studied with the same scientific methods used in other areas of science?
A. Aristotle
B. René Descartes
C. Hermann von Helmholtz
D. Carl Rogers


Which view of psychology emphasized the study of mental processes alone?
A. structuralism
B. empiricism
C. behaviorism
D. humanism


Which psychologist helped bring together the views of psychology as a science of behavior and a science of mental processes?
A. Margaret Floy Washburn
B. Sigmund Freud
C. B. F. Skinner
D. Jean Piaget


In order to evaluate the relationship between two types of behavior, researchers would most likely make use of:
A. experimental research.
B. naturalistic observation.
C. descriptive methods.
D. correlational measures.


When psychologists conduct research, the small group they test is the ________ and the larger group to which the results are applied is the ________.
A. sample; population
B. representative group; random group
C. experimental group; control group
D. descriptive group; observational group


In order to ensure that the participants' and researchers' expectations do not influence the outcome of an experiment, the psychologist should:
A. use a correlational measure.
B. form a hypothesis.
C. determine cause and effect.
D. apply the double-blind procedure.


Alfredo and Rachelle are conducting a research study on the effects of loud music on college students' hearing. They put one group of students in a room where music is blaring and another group of students in a quiet room. The group in the quiet room is called the ________ group.
A. control
B. experimental
C. random
D. correlational


Judith showed up for her first day as a participant in a psychology experiment. She and 15 other students were told to pick a piece of paper out of a hat to discover whether they would be in Group 1 or Group 2 for the duration of the experiment. What procedure were the experimenters using to determine group membership?
A. representative sample
B. double-blind
C. random assignment
D. experimental


A correlation between variables can be detected by visual inspection of a:
A. frequency polygon.
B. normal curve.
C. scatterplot.
D. bar graph.


If persons with low scores on one variable also have low scores on another variable, the two variables are:
A. positively correlated.
B. negatively correlated.
C. perfectly correlated.
D. not correlated.
E. normally distributed.


If persons with high scores on one variable are equally likely to have either high or low scores on a second variable, the two variables are:
A. positively correlated.
B. negatively correlated.
C. perfectly correlated.
D. not correlated.
E. normally distributed.


The correlation coefficient enables researchers to specify the ________ of the relationship between two variables.
A. central tendency
B. standard deviation
C. stability
D. strength
E. cause


Imagine that your computer program has provided the following pairs of test scores received by five different children.

The correlation coefficient between these two sets of test scores would increase if you did not include the scores received by:
A. Tino.
B. Jordan.
C. Joshua.
D. Jill.
E. Yvette.


The lower case letter ___________ is used as a symbol for the correlation coefficient.


Place a check next to the variables below that are positively correlated.
a. Strength of Russian accent and length of time in the United States
b. Level of education and number of children
c. Level of education and number of books in the home
d. Women's ages and length of hair
e. Blood alcohol level and score on driving skill test
f. Anxiety level and number of cups of coffee consumed


in 1897, in psychology's first experiment, _________ and his students measured the time lag between hearing a ball hit a platform and pressing a key.
a. jean piaget
b. william james
c. sigmund freud
d. wilhelm wundt


a prominent psychology text was published in 1890. Its author was _________.
a. wilhelm wundt
b. mary whiton calkins
c. carl rogers
d. william james


in the early twentieth century, ________ redefined psychology as "the science of observable behavior."
a. john b. watson
b. abraham maslow
c. william james
d. sigmund freud


the perspective in psychology that focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture is the
a. cognitive perspective
b. behavioral perspective
c. social-cultural perspective
d. neuroscience perspective


in the history of psychology, a major topic has been the relative influence of nature and nurture. Nature is to nurture as _________
a. personality is to intelligence.
b. biology is to experience.
c. intelligence is to biology
d. psychological traits are to behaviors


a psychologist using the behavioral perspective would be most likely to study
a. the effect of school uniforms on classroom behaviors.
b. the hidden meaning in children's themes and drawings.
c. the age at which children can learn algebra
d. whether certain mathematical abilities appear to be inherited.


a psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agency is most likely to be a (n)
a. research psychologist.
b. psychiatrist.
c. industrial-organizational psychologist
d. clinical psychologist


a psychologist conducting basic research to expand psychology's knowledge base would be most likely to
a. design a computer screen with limited glare and assess the effect on computer operator's eyes after a day's work.
b. treat older people who are overcome by depression.
c. observe 3- and 6-year-olds solving puzzles and analyze differences in their abilities.
d. interview children with behavioral problems and suggest treatments.


Hindsight bias refers to our tendency to
a. perceive events as obvious or inevitable after the fact.
b. be more confident than correct in estimating distances.
c. overestimate our ability to predict the future.
d. make judgements that fly in the face of common sense.


As scientists, psychologists view theories with curiosity, skepticism, and humility. This means that they
a. approach research with a negative cynacism.
b. assume that an article published in a reputable journal must be true.
c. believe that every important human question can be studied scientifically.
d. are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified by research.


A newspaper article describes how a "cure for cancer has been found."
A critical thinker probably will
a. dismiss the article as untrue.
b. accept the information as a wonderful breakthrough.
c. question the article, evaluate the evidence, and assess the conclusions.
d. question the article but quickly accept it as true if the author has an excellent reputation.


is the correlations positive or negative?
The more young children watch tv, the less they read.


is the correlations positive or negative?
The more sexual content teens see on TV, the more likely they are to have sex.


is the correlations positive or negative?
The longer children are breast-fed, the greater their later academic achievement.


is the correlations positive or negative?
The more often adolescents eat breakfast, the lower their body mass index.


The predictions implied by a theory are called
a. operational definitions
b. correlations
c. hypotheses
d. replications


Which of the following is NOT one of the techniques psychologists use to observe and describe behavior?
a. A case study
b. Naturalistic observation
c. Correlation research
d. A phone survey


You wish to take an accurate poll in a certain country by questioning people who truly represent the country's adult population. Therefore, you need to ensure that you question
a. at least 50 percent males and 50 percent females.
b. a small but intelligent sample of the population
c. a very large sample of the population
d. a random sample of the population


Knowing that two events are correlated provides
a. a basis for prediction
b. an explanation of why the events are related
c. proof that as one increases, the other also increases
d. an indication that an underlying third factor is at work


Some people wrongly perceive that their dreams predict future events. This is an example of a(n) _________ correlation.
a. negative
b. positive
c. illusory
d. naturalistic

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording