11th Grade History Chapter 13

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Describe some of the key aspects of Native American culture on the Great Plains.
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Terms in this set (19)
Used buffalo for food, clothing, and tepees

Lived in small extended family groups with ties to other bands that spoke the same language.

Women prepared the game

Women chose their own husbands

Believed that powerful spirits controlled events in the natural world

Children learned through stories, myths, games, and good examples

Ruled by council

Land was held in common for use by the whole tribe
Because the government kept changing the rules and the land set aside for Native Americans, Native Americans ignored them and kept hunting on their traditional lands.

Sand Creek - "Most of the Cheyenne, assuming they were under the protection of the U.S. government, had peacefully returned to Colorado's Sand Creek Reserve for the winter. Yet General S. R. Curtis, U.S. Army commander in the West, sent a telegram to militia colonel John Chivington that read, "I want no peace till the Indians suffer more." In response, Chivington and his troops descended on the Cheyenne and Arapaho—about 200 warriors and 500 women and children—camped at Sand Creek. The attack at dawn on November 29, 1864 killed over 150 inhabitants, mostly women and children."

Bozeman Trail - "The Bozeman Trail ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds. The Sioux chief, Red Cloud (Mahpiua Luta), had tried to get the government to end white settlement on the trail. In December 1866, the warrior Crazy Horse ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman and his company at Lodge Trail Ridge. Over 80 soldiers were killed. Native Americans called this fight the Battle of the Hundred Slain. Whites called it the Fetterman Massacre.
Skirmishes continued until the government agreed to close the Bozeman Trail. In return, the Treaty of Fort Laramie, in which the Sioux agreed to live on a reservation along the Missouri River, was forced on the leaders of the Sioux in 1868. Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotanka), leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux, had never signed it. Although the Ogala and Brule Sioux did sign the treaty, they expected to continue using their traditional hunting grounds. "

Red River War - "In late 1868, war broke out as the Kiowa and Comanche engaged in six years of raiding that finally led to the Red River War of 1874-1875. The U.S. Army responded by herding the people of friendly tribes onto reservations while opening fire on all others. General Philip Sheridan gave orders "to destroy their villages and ponies, to kill and hang all warriors, and to bring back all women and children." With such tactics, the army crushed resistance on the southern plains.

Little Bighorn (Custer's Last Stand) - "Within four years of the Treaty of Fort Laramie, miners began searching the Black Hills for gold. The Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho protested. In 1874, when Colonel George A. Custer reported that the Black Hills. a gold rush was on. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail, another Sioux chief, kept trying to get government officials to stop.

In early June 1876, the Sioux and Cheyenne held a sun dance, during which Sitting Bull had a vision of soldiers and some Native Americans falling from their horses. When Colonel Custer and his troops reached the Little Bighorn River, the Native Americans were ready for them. Led by Crazy Horse, Gall, and Sitting Bull, the warriors outflanked and crushed Custer's troops. Custer and all of his men died. By late 1876, the Sioux were beaten. Sitting Bull and a few followers took refuge in Canada, where they remained until 1881. Eventually, to prevent his people's starvation, Sitting Bull was forced to surrender.

Wounded Knee - "On December 28, 1890, the Seventh Cavalry—rounded up about 350 starving and freezing Sioux and took them to a camp at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. The next day, the soldiers demanded that the Native Americans give up all their weapons. A shot was fired; from which side, it was not clear. The soldiers opened fire with deadly cannon.
Within minutes, the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered as many as 300 mostly unarmed Native Americans, including several children. The soldiers left the corpses to freeze on the ground. This event, the Battle of Wounded Knee, brought the Indian wars—and an entire era—to a bitter end.
Assimilation - a plan where Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of the white culture

The Dawes Act broke up the reservations and gave some of the reservation land to individual Native Americans. The government would sell the remainder of the reservations to settlers, and the money would be used by Native Americans to buy farm equipment. Native Americans didn't get any money.
What role did women play in the settlement of the frontier?Worked with men in fields, sheared the sheep, carded wool to make clothes, made soap and candles, canned fruits and vegetables acted as family doctors, started and supported schools and churches.How did new inventions change farming in the West?Made farm work faster, making more grain available for a bigger marketDescribe the financial difficulties experienced by western farmers.Prices for crops fell, farmers wold borrow against their farms, so they could buy more land and grow more crops. More and more couldn't pay back the loans. Railroads charged more for shipping and storage.What were some of the causes of the farmer's economic problems? What solutions did they seek?Farmers paid high prices to transport grain, many mortgaged their farms for credit, they were caught in a cycle of credit and were in more debt each year Formed alliances to educate farmers about credit, promoted cooperation Gained representation in governmentHow did railroads contribute to farmers' economic problems?Raised prices for shipping and storageDescribe the impact of the Grange movement and Farmers' Alliances.The Farmers' Alliances called for a graduated income tax, state ownership of the railroads, lower tariffs, and "free silver." The Farmers' Alliances had some success during the 1880s and 1890s in having supporters elected to local and state offices.What was the Populist Party, and what was their platform?A political party to lift the burden of debt from farmers and other worker and to give people a greater voice in their government.Why was the metal that backed paper currency such an important issue in the 1896 presidential campaign?Because people thought paper money was worthless unless it could be turned in for gold or silver.How did the election of 1896 help end the populist movement?McKinley won the presidency - republican and back the gold standard.