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Chapter 2 and chapter 5

What is are the molecules called that make up DNA and RNA?


How does protein synthesis occur?

mRNA transcript provides Open Reading Frame which Translates into proteins via ribosomal protein synthesis.

How are mRNA nucleotide sequences coded?

In triplets or codons

What are some complications that can arise from mRNA encoding? (4 main ones)

Deletions (worst), Mutations (change of one nucleotide) and can either be missence (codes for different protein) or nonsense (premature stop codon), frameshift mutation (inserts or deletes nucleotides not divisible by 3), splicing mutation (can cause premature stop codon to appear).

Best way to measure hormone levels?

Test plasma every 20-30 minutes

When are ACTH and Cortisol levels highest during day?


What is most common constituent used for hormone binding in bloodstream, and which hormones rely on binding?

Albumin, steroid and thyroid hormones travel bound to binding proteins.

Percent of thyroid hormones NOT bound?


What has type of binding has the most affect on feedback mechanisms?

freely bound, and weakly bound hormones

Give an example of "hormone pairs."

Hormones that rely on each other to maintain homeostasis, as well as keeping organ failure from occuring. Ex) TSH and T4

What is formula for Metabolic Clearance Rate (MCR)?

mean plasma conc (PC), production rate (PR).

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