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needing oxygen to survive


a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits; commonly used to treat serious infections


capable of surviving in the absence of oxygen


a chemical substance with the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria life processes


a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms on the outside of the body


variation in hearbeat, irregular heartbeat


small, single-celled microorganisms that exist in three main forms: spherical, rod shaped, and spiral

Bactericidal Agent

a drug that kills bacteria

Bacteriostatic Agent

a drug that inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria

Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic

an antibiotic that is effective against multiple organisms


a class of antibiotics with a mechanism of action similar to that of penicillins, but with a different antibacterial spectrum, resistance to beta-lactamase, and pharmacokinetics; divided into first-, second-, third-, and fourth-generation agents


combination of an organic molecule such as a drug with a metal in complexes in which the metal ion is part of a ring


contracted out of the hospital

Cyclic Lipopeptide

a new class of antibiotics that bind to bacterial membranes and cause the cell membrane to depolarize, thus leading to an inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis


an agent that frees inanimate objects from infection

Empirical Treatment

treatment begun before a definite diagnosis can be obtained

Gram Staining

a staining technique that divides bacteria into gram-positive (purple) or gram-negative (red) based on the properties of their cell walls


low blood pressure


a condition in which bacteria grow in body tissues and cause tissue damage to the host either by their presence or by toxins they produce


a class of antibiotics that block protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits and may also inhibit the formation of new ribosomes; used primarily to treat bacterial infections in the lungs and sinuses


a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by combining with ribosomes; used primarily to treat pulmonary infections caused by Legionella and gram-positive organisms


ability to damage the kidneys


acquired by patients in the hospital


normal saline


to be used in the eye


to be used in the ear


ability to damage the organs of hearing


a class of antibiotics obtained from Penicillium chrysogenum; kill bacteria by preventing them from forming a rigid cell wall, thereby allowing an excessive amount of water to enter through osmosis and cause lysis of the bacterium cell


a measurement of acidity or alkalinity; 7 is neutral; above 7 is alkaline; below 7 is acidic


a class of antibiotics with rapid bactericidal action against most gram-negative and many gram-positive bacteria; work by causing DNA breakage and cell death; cross the blood-brain barrier


a systemic inflammatory response to infection resulting from blood-borne infections

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

a sometimes fatal form of erythema multiforme (an allergic reaction marked by red blotches on the skin)


one of a class of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis within the bacterial ribosomes; useful in the treatment of vancomycin- and methicillin-resistant infections (VRE and MRSA)


sulfa drugs; a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that work by blocking a specific step in the biosynthetic pathway or folic acid in bacteria


a new infection complicating the course of therapy of an existing infection


a class of broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics that are produced by soil organisms and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes

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