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36 terms

Intro to Pharmacology - Ch. 4

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Aerobic
needing oxygen to survive
Aminoglycoside
a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits; commonly used to treat serious infections
Anaerobic
capable of surviving in the absence of oxygen
Antibiotic
a chemical substance with the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria life processes
Antiseptic
a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms on the outside of the body
Arrhythmia
variation in hearbeat, irregular heartbeat
Bacteria
small, single-celled microorganisms that exist in three main forms: spherical, rod shaped, and spiral
Bactericidal Agent
a drug that kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic Agent
a drug that inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria
Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic
an antibiotic that is effective against multiple organisms
Cephalosporin
a class of antibiotics with a mechanism of action similar to that of penicillins, but with a different antibacterial spectrum, resistance to beta-lactamase, and pharmacokinetics; divided into first-, second-, third-, and fourth-generation agents
Chelation
combination of an organic molecule such as a drug with a metal in complexes in which the metal ion is part of a ring
Community-Acquired
contracted out of the hospital
Cyclic Lipopeptide
a new class of antibiotics that bind to bacterial membranes and cause the cell membrane to depolarize, thus leading to an inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis
Disinfectant
an agent that frees inanimate objects from infection
Empirical Treatment
treatment begun before a definite diagnosis can be obtained
Gram Staining
a staining technique that divides bacteria into gram-positive (purple) or gram-negative (red) based on the properties of their cell walls
Hypotension
low blood pressure
Infection
a condition in which bacteria grow in body tissues and cause tissue damage to the host either by their presence or by toxins they produce
Ketolide
a class of antibiotics that block protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits and may also inhibit the formation of new ribosomes; used primarily to treat bacterial infections in the lungs and sinuses
Macrolide
a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by combining with ribosomes; used primarily to treat pulmonary infections caused by Legionella and gram-positive organisms
Nephrotoxicity
ability to damage the kidneys
Nosocomial
acquired by patients in the hospital
NS
normal saline
Opthalmic
to be used in the eye
Otic
to be used in the ear
Ototoxicity
ability to damage the organs of hearing
Penicillin
a class of antibiotics obtained from Penicillium chrysogenum; kill bacteria by preventing them from forming a rigid cell wall, thereby allowing an excessive amount of water to enter through osmosis and cause lysis of the bacterium cell
pH
a measurement of acidity or alkalinity; 7 is neutral; above 7 is alkaline; below 7 is acidic
Quinolone
a class of antibiotics with rapid bactericidal action against most gram-negative and many gram-positive bacteria; work by causing DNA breakage and cell death; cross the blood-brain barrier
Sepsis
a systemic inflammatory response to infection resulting from blood-borne infections
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
a sometimes fatal form of erythema multiforme (an allergic reaction marked by red blotches on the skin)
Streptogramin
one of a class of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis within the bacterial ribosomes; useful in the treatment of vancomycin- and methicillin-resistant infections (VRE and MRSA)
Sulfonamides
sulfa drugs; a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that work by blocking a specific step in the biosynthetic pathway or folic acid in bacteria
Superinfection
a new infection complicating the course of therapy of an existing infection
Tetracyclines
a class of broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics that are produced by soil organisms and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes