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Terms in this set (70)
Which two of the following does Hobbes state are reasons to sign a social contract?
• To get out of the miserable condition of war.
• For our own preservation.
Which two of the following reasons does Hobbes cite to explain why sovereignty is not natural for human beings?
• We have a private good that is different from the common good.
• We compete with each other for honor and dignity.
3. Which two of the following form part of Hobbes's account of the social contract and definition of the commonwealth?
• That by signing a social contract we make ourselves the authors of the sovereign's acts.
• That the sovereign has the right to all things that used to belong to everyone in the state of nature.
4. Which two claims does Hobbes make about the effects of absolute sovereign authority?
• That it a lesser form of inconvenience than are civil war or the state of nature.
• That it overshadows all other power sources in a body politic.
5. Which two of the following characterize Locke's depiction of the state of nature?
6. Which two of the following does Locke say about the law of nature?
• That it applies in the state of nature.
• That people who violate it may be punished in the same way that wild animals may be killed.
7. Which two of the following are necessary if private property is to be legitimately removed from the common stock, according to Locke?
• Enough of the thing in question is left to satisfy everyone else.
• The owner uses the materials and does not let them go to waste.
8. Which two of the following are among the inconveniences of the state of nature in Locke's account?
• There is no settled law that is allowed by common consent to be the adjudicator of right and wrong.
• We would all have to be judge in our own case.
9. Which two of the following does Locke take to be the limits of the legislative power?
• It cannot take our property without our consent.
• It cannot be arbitrary and it cannot rule by decree.
10. Which two of the following formed part of the historical context in which Hobbes and Locke wrote?
• The English Civil War.
• The 'Glorious Revolution.'
11. Which two claims about nature does Aristotle make?
• That the state is a creation of nature.
• That people are, by nature, political animals.
12. Which two of the following does Aristotle take to be public-interested political regime types?
13. Which two groups does Aristotle wish to exclude from political life?
• Natural slaves.
14. Which two types of rule does Aristotle distinguish between?
• The rule that the head of a household exercises.
• Constitutional rule in a government of freemen and equals.
15. Which two types of slavery does Aristotle distinguish between?
• Slavery by convention, whereby victors in war can enslave those whom they conquer.
• Slavery by nature, whereby those who are less rational are best suited to submission and authority is in their best interests.
16. What does Mill say about inequality between men and women?
• That male dominance is wrong in itself
• That male dominance is a great obstacle to social progress
17. For which two reasons, according to Mill, was gender inequality more difficult to overcome than either slavery or absolute monarchy?
• Because women tend to live with men, whereas most people are more remote from an absolute monarch or slave-owner
• Because the number of beneficiaries of male dominance is greater
18. For which two reasons does Mill reject the view that women consent to gender inequality?
• That it is not true
• That it is impossible to consent to something in the context of fear
19. In which two ways have political theorists ignored the family?
• They have idealized the family, claiming that, as ties of love and affection mark it, questions of justice are inappropriate to it.
• They have argued that the gendered structure of the family is natural.
20. Why does Mill say that marriage is equivalent to legal slavery?
• Because married women were legally unable to own property
• Because there was no such crime as rape within marriage in English law
21. For which two reasons did Mill say that women's exclusion from the workplace was wrong?
• Because it is superfluous to place a legal restriction on someone if it is really true that they cannot perform the task
• Because there is no historical evidence to support the view that women cannot achieve great things in the workplace
22. Which two alternatives to satyagraha did Gandhi consider and reject?
• Violent resistance
• Appeal to reason
23. Which two of the following did Gandhi advocate?
• Economic trusteeship, where private property was held in trust if it was not directly needed.
• Swaraj, or true democracy, marked by popular participation and smaller communities linked by concentric circles of authority.
24. Which two of the following did Gandhi take to be benefits of satyagraha?
• It would promote dialog and a shared sense of justice.
• It would promote the human capacity for good, and thus overcome the ontological failures of resistance by violence.
25. For which two reasons, according to Sartre, is Fanon's argument important for Western audiences?
• Fanon shows how we are estranged from ourselves.
• Fanon exposes historical processes and so liberal hypocrisy.
26. For which two reasons, on Sartre's account of Fanon, is violence necessary for the anti-colonial struggle?
• Because oppression causes psychological trauma that must find an outlet.
• Because, by using violence, colonized people will recreate themselves.
27. For which two reasons did Sartre write the preface?
• To point out how we are all accomplices in the crime of colonialism.
• To show that non-violence cannot make sense in a colonial context.
28. For which two reasons, according to Fanon, can and must violent resistance succeed?
• Because there is no colonial power willing to establish large forces of occupation.
• Because guerrilla warfare has a different logic to regular war.
Which two claims does Fanon make about colonialism?
• That it is always violent.
• That it is a system of compartmentalization.
30. Which two claims does Fanon make about intellectual elites in colonized countries?
• That they buy into the humanism of the colonial bourgeoisie, who appeal to such values as non-violence.
• That they are highly in demand in Western countries.
31. Which two pieces of advice does Machiavelli offer in the opening pages of the reading?
• That a ruler should suppress rival power centers.
• That rulers should prop up but not enlarge the power of more vulnerable elements.
32. For which two reasons does Machiavelli suggest that his work can be useful to the de Medici family?
• Because he had made a long and careful study of history.
• Because perspective is useful in thinking about politics, just as it is in landscape art.
hich two types of regime does Machiavelli distinguish between?
34. Which two types of regime are a subdivision of one of the above?
• Hereditary regimes (like the UK today).
• Acquired additions (like the Kingdom of Naples for the King of Spain).
35. Which two things form the bulwark of a prince's rule, according to Machiavelli?
• Skill, or virtue.
• Fortune, or luck.
36. Which two men does Machiavelli praise as being particularly skillful?
• Hiero of Syracuse.
• Cesare Borgia, also called Duke Valentino.
37. Which two regimes is Aristotle principally concerned with in his chapter on revolution?
38. Which two causes does he take them to uphold?
• That of wealth.
• That of freedom.
39. Which two things does Aristotle take to be types of revolution?
• Changes in the constitution of a regime.
• Changes in the rulers.
40. Which two pieces of advice does Aristotle give to leaders who wish to avoid a revolution?
• Focus on obedience to the law, especially in small matters.
• Develop good relationships between classes.
41. In which two of the following ways did Satan try to tempt Christ, according to Dostoevsky's Grand Inquisitor?
• By suggesting that he prove his divinity by throwing himself off the temple so that angels would hold him aloft.
• By coaxing him into ruling all the kingdoms of the world.
42. Which two mistakes did Jesus make, according to Dostoevsky's Grand Inquisitor?
• He misread human nature.
• He didn't realize that we will be happy only when we lose our freedom.
43. Which two events happen during the story of the Grand Inquisitor?
• Ivan Karamazov tells his brother Alyosha about his plans for a poem.
• The Grand Inquisitor threatens to have Jesus executed for interfering with the authority of the church.
44. What two things does Machiavelli do at the very start of The Discourses?
• Write a letter to his friends Zanobi Buondelmonti and Cosimo Rucellai.
• Sing the praises of Hiero of Syracuse, just as he did in The Prince.
45. Which two things does Machiavelli try to do in The Discourses?
• Learn from the history of Rome how to construct a successful city.
• Defend a form of republican liberty by advocating a mixed constitution.
46. Which two reasons does Machiavelli offer to explain why conflict or tumult is beneficial?
• It allows the people a voice to express their ambition.
• It helped the Roman republic to become free and powerful.
47. Which two systems of morality does Walzer consider and then reject?
• Absolutist ethics, or the idea that moral principles may never be broken.
• Utilitarian ethics, or the idea that morality is about ensuring good consequences, and particularly happiness.
48. Which two examples of a moral dilemma does Walzer consider?
• Whether to make a deal with a corrupt ward boss so as to win an election at which an important moral issue is at stake.
• Whether to order the torture of a terrorist who knows the location of bombs that would otherwise kill many people
49. For which two reasons does Walzer say that dirty hands dilemmas are genuine phenomena?
• Moral decision-making is a social activity constituted in part by knowledge of publicly shared rules.
• Because, as the Hamlet example shows, moral rules may be overridden but they cannot be set aside or canceled.
Which two responses to the dirty hands dilemma does Walzer consider?
• Weber's claim that someone with dirty hands becomes a tragic hero who must suffer forever.
• Camus's idea that someone with dirty hands becomes an innocent criminal and must be punished and rewarded simultaneously.
51. What two conceptions of freedom are most common?
• Positive freedom: freedom as being able to do something.
• Negative freedom: freedom as the absence of restraint.
52. Which two things does Hobbes say about freedom?
• That a choice made because of fear can still be free. If I do something because I am threatened, I still freely chose to do it.
• That freedom is compatible with necessity: if an inanimate object is released from a container, it is free to move.
53. Which two rights does Hobbes suggest that citizens retain in a commonwealth?
• The right to defend their body against a lawful command by the sovereign.
• The right not to fight in a war that is not a struggle for survival on the part of the commonwealth.
54. Which two things does Hobbes say about property in a commonwealth?
• That property rights are absolute with regard to other subjects.
• That the sovereign may always restrict our property rights.
55. Which two of the following does Rousseau say about the state of nature?
• That previous accounts of it have not gone far enough back in time.
• That it would go through various stages as human nature develops.
56. Which two types of inequality does Rousseau distinguish between?
• Natural or physical inequality.
• Social or moral inequality.
57. Which two principles does Rousseau would be operative in the early state of nature?
• Self-love (amour de soi).
58. Which two reasons does Rousseau offer for the development of inequality?
• Property developed out of the second stage of the state of nature.
• The development of agriculture and metallurgy made us dependent on other people.
59. Which two things does Rousseau say about the state?
• That it emerged as a defense of unjustified inequality and privilege.
• That absolute government is the final decay of the state.
60. Which two conclusions does Rousseau draw about inequality?
• That all existing societies in his day contain inequalities that are against the law of nature and are therefore unjust.
• That moral inequality is illegitimate and contrary to natural law whenever it is not directly proportional to physical inequality.
hich two facts about Mill are true?
• He was raised to be a child prodigy by his father, James Mill
• He campaigned in the British Parliament for women to receive the right to vote
62. Which are the two aspects of the Harm Principle?
• That self-regarding actions should not be regulated
• That other-regarding actions fall within the remit of the government
63. Which two types of threats to freedom does Mill consider especially important?
• Public opinion
64. Which two topics does Mill devote chapters to in On Liberty?
• Freedom of thought and discussion
65. Which two justifications for freedom of opinion does Mill offer?
• That if we suppress a belief that is true we rob people of the chance to exchange truth for error.
• That if we suppress a belief that is untrue we rob people of the chance of sharpening their ideas.
66. What does Mill say about the sale of poison?
• That if poison did not have a legitimate scientific purpose, its sale could be banned outright
• That poison should be available for sale so long as it is appropriately labeled
67. What does Mill say about gambling and prostitution?
• That they are self-regarding acts and so strictly speaking do not fall within the remit of the Harm Principle
• That it is one thing to say that something should be legal and quite another to say that people should make a career out of it
68. What does Mill say should be done if someone is about to walk across a dangerous bridge?
• The person should be warned of the danger
• The person should be free to accept or decline the warning offered
69. What does Mill say about drunkenness?
• That someone who has a history of drunken violence should be punished severely for future incidents
• That someone who fails to fulfill their responsibilities to their children because of drunkenness should be held liable for that
70. What does Mill say about education?
• That there is a social duty to ensure that all children are educated
• That it is preferable that the government regulate education than that it provide that education
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