Interaction of Living Things Ch 18

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Terms in this set (...)

population
a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical region
community
all the populations of the species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other
ecosystem
a community of organisms and their abiotic environment
biosphere
the part of Earth where life exists
energy
sunlight is the source of energy for almost all living things
herbivore
an organism that eats only plants
carnivore
an organism that eats only animals
omnivore
an organism that eats both plants and animals
species
a group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring
food chain
a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another
food web
a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
energy pyramid
a diagram that shows an ecosystem's loss of energy, which results as energy passes through the ecosystem's food chain
carrying capacity
the largest population that an environment can support at any given time
prey
an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
predator
an organism that kills and eats all or part of another organism
symbiosis
a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other
mutualism
a relationship between two species in which both species benefit
commensalism
a relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
parasitism
a relationship between two species in which one benefits and one is harmed
coevolution
the evolution of two species that is due to mutual influence, often in a way that makes the relationship more beneficial to both species
cell
the smallest unit of all living things; contains all materials necessary for life
homeostasis
maintenance of a stable internal environment
heredity
passing of traits from one generation to the next
producer
can make their own food
consumer
eats other organisms to get food
decomposer
gets food by breaking down nutrients in dead organisms and animal waste
asexual reproduction
one parent produces offspring
sexual reproduction
two parents produce offspring
abiotic
nonliving factors in the environment (like rocks, air, water, temperature)
biotic
living factors in the environment (like plants, animals, insects, bacteria, etc.)
homeostasis
maintenance of a stable internal environment
heredity
passing of traits from one generation to the next
autotroph
primary producers that make their own food
heterotroph
organisms that are consumers
trophic level
position an organism holds in a food chain
scavenger
organism that eats dead organisms
photosynthesis
process by which plants make food (glucose)
biodiversity
the variety of plants and animals (living things) in one place or area.
conservation
Careful use of resources to get the most out of them and preserve them for the future
competetition
when two organisms fight for the same limited resources
biome
a large region characterized by its climate and the plants and animals that live there
marsh
a treeless wetland ecosystem where tall grasses grow
estuary
an area where fresh water from rivers and streams mixes with salt water from the ocean
mimicry
a defensive (protective) adaptation in which one organism resembles another that is dangerous or poisonous
succession
slow, natural change in an ecosystem over a period of time
Pioneer Species
First species to populate an area
adaptation
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
plankton
Tiny organisms that float in the water
mutually beneficial
good for both species--mutualism
camouflage
blending in with the background
decomposition
The breaking down of organic matter; involves bacteria and/or fungi.