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all relevant forces outside a firm's boundaries, such as competitors, customers, the government, and the economy
the immediate environment surrounding a firm; includes suppliers, customers, rivals, and the like
the general environment surrounding a firm; includes governments, economic conditions, and other fundamental factors that generally affect all organizations
measures of various characteristics of the people who make up groups or other social units
supply chain management
the managing of the network of facilities and people that obtain materials from outside the organization, transform them into products, and distribute them to customers
a customer who purchases raw materials or wholesale products before selling them to final customers
the process of comparing an organization's practices and technologies with those of other companies
the process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their beliefs that they are influential contributors to the organization
strategies that an organization acting on its own uses to change some aspect of its current environment
strategies used by 2 or more organizations working together to manage the external environment
an organization's conscious efforts to change the boundaries of its task environment
companies that continuously change the boundaries for task environments by seeking new products and markets, diversifying and merging, or acquiring new enterprises
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