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Chapter 16 and 17 Quiz
Terms in this set (29)
The fist transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. Five transcontinental railroads were constructed during the nineteenth century. Irish and Chinese workers played key roles in the construction of the transcontinental railroads. They transformed the economy of the entire region.
Extermination of the Bison
The railroads played a key role in the near-extinction of the buffalo herd. This dealt a devastating blow to the culture of the Plains Indians. The railroads brought a tidal wave of troops, farmers, miners, and cattlemen to the Great Plains. As the settlers built farms, range-fed cattle rapidly replaced the now decimated buffalo herds.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25. Encouraged westward migration.
Federal law passed in 1862 by Lincoln that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation. Custer and all of his men died. Proved to be the last military victory of the Plains Indians against the U.S. army.
Helen Hunt Jackson's "Century of Dishonor"
This book was written by Helen Hunt Jackson. It aroused public awareness of the federal government's long record of betraying and cheating Native Americans.
Dawes Severalty Act
This act was a misguided attempt to reform the government's Native American policy. The legislation's goal was to assimilate Native Americans into the mainstream of American life by dissolving tribes as legal entities and eliminating tribal ownership of land. This act ignored the inherent reliance of traditional Indian culture on tribally owned land. By 1900, Indians has lost 50 percent of the 156 million acres they held just two decades earlier. The forced-assimilation doctrine of this act remained the cornerstone of the government's official Indian policy for nearly half a century.
The ghost dance was a sacred ritual expressing a vision that the buffalo would return and White civilization would vanish. The army attempted to destroy it at this battle in 1890, fearing that the ceremony would cause an uprising. As many as 200 Indian men, women, and children were killed at this battle.
2nd Industrial Revolution: Fossil Fuel Revolution, Electricity, Bessemer Process
A wave in 19th century between 1860 and 1920 in which industrialization was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads. This period also witnessed the spread of industrialization from Great Britain to western Europe and the United States. Both the United States and Germany soon rivaled Great Britain.
Robber Barons and Captains of Industry
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
He was a highly-valued pioneering figure: an American industrialist and philanthropist. He revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. He founded "Standard Oil". His 40 oil companies owned about 90% of the nation's pipelines and refined 84% of the nation's oil. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific research. He used the system of horizontal integration.
This is the belief that the fittest survive in both nature and society. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used this belief to justify their success. Supporters believed that industrial and urban problems are part of a natural evolutionary process that humans cannot control.
This occurs when one company gains control over other companies that produce the same product through predatory pricing.
This occurs when a company controls both the production and distribution of its product.
This man used vertical integration to gain control over the U.S. steel industry. Over his lifetime, he donated more than $350 million to support libraries, school, peace initiatives, and the arts.
"Gospel of Wealth"
This gospel was promoted by Andrew Carnegie. it expressed the belief that, as the guardians of society's wealth, the rich have a duty to serve society.
J.P. Morgan and U.S. Steel
He merged in 1901 the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses, including Consolidates Steel and Wire Company owned by William Edenborn, to form the United States Steel Corporation.
Social and educational organization founded in 1867 to gain more political representation for farmers and to improve their living standards.
Political party formed in 1876 devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.
Crime of 1873
The term used to refer to the passage of the Coinage Act of 1873. It fully embraced the Gold Standard. Western mining interests and others who wanted silver in circulation called the Act the "Crime of '73"
One of several organizations of farmers that developed out of the Grange movement and which eventually blended into the base of support for the Populist party. Groups of farmers of those in sympathy with farming issues, who sent lectures from town to town to educate people about agricultural and rural issues.
This party attempted to unite discontented farmers. It attempted to improve their economic conditions. It attempted to support the following: (1) increase the money supply with the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the legal ration of 16 to 1 (2) Using the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 to regulate railroads and prevent discrimination against small customers (3) Organizing cooperative marketing societies (4) Supporting the candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 presidential election.
Political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Bryan was the nominee of the Democrats, the Populist Party, and the Silver Republicans. Economic issues, including bimetallism, the gold standard, Free Silver, and the tariff, were crucial.
Populist Party Failure Factors
Western and Southern farmers did not agree on political strategies. Racism prevented poor White and Black farmers from working together. The dramatic increase in urban population caused by the wave of New Immigrants led to higher prices for agricultural products. The discovery of gold in the Yukon increased the supply of gold, thus easing farmers' access to credit. The Democratic Party absorbed many Populist programs. William Jennings Bryan lost the 1896 presidential election to William McKinley and the Republicans.
2nd Wave Immigration
Beginning in the 1880s, a new wave of immigrants left Europe for America. The so-called New Immigrants came from small towns and villages in southern and eastern Europe. The New Immigrants primarily settled in large cities in the Northeast and Midwest. Very few New Immigrants settles in the South.
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892 in New York Harbor, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy.
Chinese Exclusion Act
This was the first law in American history to exclude a group from America because of ethnic background. The act prohibited the immigration of Chinese to America. Working-class Americans who felt threatened by Chinese workers strongly supported the law. Support for the law was particularly strong in California.
A chief of the Chiricahua Apaches who fought encroachments in the Southwest for fifteen years but was captured in 1886. The U.S. had completed its military conquest of the West.
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