Exam 3 (A&P)

The part of the nervous system that controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands is the
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The resting membrane potential results when the tendency for ________ to diffuse out of the cell is balanced by its attraction to opposite charges inside the cell.K+If the permeability of the plasma membrane to K+ increases, the resting membrane potential difference __________. This is called __________.increases, hyperpolarizationDecreasing the extracellular concentration of K+ affects the resting membrane potential by causinghyperpolarizationWhich of these terms is correctly matched with its definition or description?hyperpolarization: membrane potential becomes more negativeWhich of these statements about ion movement through the plasma membrane is true?-movement of Na+ out of the cell requires energy (ATP) -when Ca2+ binds to proteins in ion channels, the diffusion of Na+ into the cell is inhibited -specific ion channels regulate the diffusion of Na+ through the plasma membraneThe major function of the sodium-potassium pump is tomaintain the concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ across the plasma membraneGraded potentialsspread over the plasma membrane in decremental fashion are not propagated for long distances are confined to a small region of the plasma membrane can summateDuring the depolarization phase of an action potential, the permeability of the membraneto Na+ is greatly increasedDuring depolarization of the plasma membrane,K+ diffuses out of the cellThe absolute refractory period-limits how many action potentials can be produced during a given period of time -prevents an action potential from starting another action potential at the -same point on the plasma membraneA subthreshold stimulusproduces a graded potentialNeurotransmitter substances are stored in vesicles located in specialized portions of theaxonIn a chemical synapse,-action potentials in the presynaptic terminal cause voltage-gated Ca2+ -channels to open -neurotransmitters can cause ligand-gated Na+ channels to open -neurotransmitters can be broken down by enzymes -neurotransmitters can be taken up by the presynaptic terminalAn inhibitory presynaptic neuron can affect a postsynaptic neuron by-producing an IPSP in the postsynaptic neuron -hyperpolarizing the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic neuron -causing K+ to diffuse out of the postsynaptic neuron -causing Cl- to diffuse into the postsynaptic neuronSummation-is caused by combining two or more graded potentials -occurs at the trigger zone of the postsynaptic neuron -results in an action potential if it reaches the threshold potential -can occur when two action potentials arrive in close succession at a single presynaptic terminalIn convergent pathways,the response of the postsynaptic neuron depends on the summation of EPSPs and IPSPsThe spinal cord extends from thelevel of the foramen magnum to the second lumbar vertebraThe structure that anchors the inferior end of the spinal cord to the coccyx is thefilum terminaleAxons of sensory neurons synapse with cell bodies of interneurons in the _______ of the spinal cord gray matter.dorsal hornGiven these components of a reflex arc: 1. effector organ 2. interneuron 3. motor neuron 4. sensory neuron 5. sensory receptor Choose the correct order an action potential follows after a sensory receptor is stimulated.5,4,2,3,1A reflex response accompanied by the conscious sensation of pain is possible because ofdivergent pathwaysSeveral of the events that occur between the time a physician strikes a patient's patellar tendon with a rubber hammer and the time the quadriceps femoris contracts (knee-jerk reflex) are listed below: 1. Increased frequency of action potentials in sensory neurons 2. Stretch of the muscle spindles 3. Increased frequency of action potentials in the alpha motor neurons 4. Stretch of the quadriceps femoris 5. Contraction of the quadriceps femoris4,1,2,3,5___________ are responsible for regulating the sensitivity of the muscle spindle.gamma motor neuronsWhich of these events occurs when a person steps on a tack with the right foot?The flexor muscles of the right thigh contract, and the extensor muscles of the right thigh relax because of reciprocal innervation.Damage to the dorsal ramus of a spinal nerve results inloss of sensation and loss of motor functionA collection of spinal nerves that join together after leaving the spinal cord is called aplexusA dermatome-is the area of skin supplied by a pair of spinal nerves -exists for each spinal nerve except C1 -can be used to locate the site of spinal cord or nerve root damageWhich of these nerves arises from the cervical plexus?phrenicThe skin on the posterior surface of the hand is supplied by theradial nerveThe sciatic nerve is actually two nerves combined within the same sheath. The two nerves are thecommon fibular (peroneal) and tibialThe muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh are supplied by thefemoral nerveWhich of these parts of the embryonic brain is correctly matched with the structure it becomes in the adult brain?mesencephalon (midbrain)To separate the Brainstem from the rest of the brain, a cut would have to be made between themidbrain and diencephalonImportant centers for heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, swallowing, coughing, and vomiting are located in themedulla oblongataIn which part of the brain does decussation of descending tracts involved in the conscious control of skeletal muscles occur?medulla oblongataThe cerebral peduncles are a major descending motor pathway in themidbrainThe superior colliculi are involved in __________, whereas the inferior colliculi are involved in ___________.visual reflexes, hearingThe cerebellum communicates with other regions of the CNS through thecerebellar pedunclesThe major relay station for sensory input that projects to the cerebral cortex is thethalamusThe part of the diencephalon directly connected to the pituitary gland is thehypothalamusWhich of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?-regulates autonomic nervous system functions -regulates the release of hormones from the posterior pituitary -regulates body temperature -regulates food intake (hunger) and water intake (thirst)The grooves on the surface of the cerebrum are called thesulciWhich of these areas is located in the postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex?primary somatic sensory cortexWhich of these cerebral lobes is important in voluntary motor function, motivation, aggression, sense of smell, and mood?frontalFibers that connect areas of the cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere areassociation fibersThe basal nuclei are located in theinferior cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrainThe most superficial of the meninges is a thick, tough membrane called thedura materThe ventricles of the brain are interconnected. Which of these ventricles are not correctly matched with the structures that connect them?left lateral ventricle to right lateral ventricle-central canalCerebrospinal fluid is produced by the ___________, circulates through the ventricles, and enters the subarachnoid space. The cerebrospinal fluid leaves the subarachnoid space through the ___________.choroid plexuses, arachnoid granulationsWater-soluble molecules of the blood plasma move across the blood-brain barrier bysymportThe cranial nerve involved in chewing food is thetrigeminal (V)The cranial nerve responsible for focusing the eye (innervating the ciliary muscle of the eye) is theoculomotor (III)The cranial nerve involved in moving the tongue is thehypoglossal (XII)The cranial nerve involved in feeling a toothache is thetrigeminal (V)From this list of cranial nerves: 1. Olfactory (I) 2. Optic (II) 3. Oculomotor (III) 4. Abducens (VI) 5. Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Select the nerves that are sensory only.1,2,5From this list of cranial nerves: 1. Trigeminal (V) 2. Facial (VII) 3. Glossopharyngeal (IX) 4. Vagus (X) 5. Hypoglossal (XII) Select the nerves involved in the sense of taste.2,3,4From this list of cranial nerves: 1. oculomotor (III) 2. trigeminal (V) 3. facial (VII) 4. vestibulocochlear (VIII) 5. glossopharyngeal (IX) 6. vagus (X) Select the nerves that are part of the parasympathetic division of the ANS.1,3,5,6