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World Geography Exam - Mangum
Terms in this set (89)
Five themes of geography with questions.
Location (where is it?), place (what is it like there?), human and environment interaction (what is the relationship between people and their environment?), movement (how are people and places connected?), regions (formal and functional)
The study of the Earth and the way in which people live and work on it
Precise coordinates of where something is located on the Earth
Where something is located in relation to something else
The parallel of 0 degrees latitude from which other latitudes are calculated
The meridian of 0 degrees longitude from which other longitudes are calculated
What is the shape of the Earth?
Pros and cons to using globes
They are the only "true" representation of the earth that we have because there are no distortions in shape, size, and distances. Cons - lack detail, bulky and hard to transport
Pros and cons to using maps
They are easy to transport and are good at showing detail. Cons - shapes of landmasses inaccurate
Shows boundaries between nations, states, major cities, and capital cities
Shows physical features of the earth's surface, typically through the use of color
Special purpose map
Shows one specific theme or idea
What is another name for a special purpose map?
Cylindrical map projection
Shows how the earth would look if a piece of paper were wrapped to form a tube or cylinder around the globe. The distances are not true and the size of landmasses near North and South poles are exaggerated
Planar map projection
Projecting the globe onto a plane that is touching the globe at one point. Longitude lines are straight and meet in the center of the circle. Latitude lines form a series of circles that get smaller as they reach the center of this kind of map. Distances and directions are accurate when the line of travel passes through the center of the map
Conic map projection
Placing a cone over part of the globe. Good for showing small areas midway between the Equator and the Poles. Size, distance, and direction are fairly accurate
What are the three layers of the Earth?
Core, mantle, crust
What percentage of our water is fresh? Salt?
Fresh - 3% salt - 97%
Where is most of the freshwater located?
2% in frozen glaciers or ice caps, 1% is available for human consumption
What percentage of the earth is land?
What is the water cycle?
The natural movement of water on earth, we always have a constant amount of water on earth
What are the three steps of the water cycle?
Evaporation, condensation, precipitation
A crack in the earth's crust
Five factors that influence climate.
Direct sunlight (most influential), elevation, wind patterns, ocean currents, landforms
What are the three latitude regions?
Low latitudes (tropics) - hot year round because they always receive the direct rays of the sun, mid latitudes - experience seasonal change, high latitudes - cold year round because they never receive direct rays of the sun
Describe the middle latitude climate regions.
Marine west coast - cool summers and damp winters, tons of rainfall, forests ; Mediterranean - mild, rainy winters and hot, sunny summers, Mediterranean scrub ; humid sub-tropical - short, mild winters, year round rain, prairies, mixed forests ; humid continental - harsh winters and short, cool summer, evergreen trees
What causes the change of seasons?
Earth's revolution around the sun as well as its tilt on its axis
Windward vs. leeward.
Windward - wet side of the mountain as a result of the rain shadow effect, leeward - dry side
What happens to the atmosphere as elevation increases?
It thins, for every 1,000 ft. gained in elevation, the temperature drops 3.5 degrees
Information regarding plate tectonics.
The crust is broken into more than a dozen great slabs of rock called tectonic plates, plates float on a partially melted layer of the mantle, plate movement is gradual (4 inches a year), continental drift - the constant motion of the earth's crust, explains how most of the earth's surface was formed
Define lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
Lithosphere - all of the land on earth including the ocean floor, biosphere - where life exists, hydrosphere - all the water on earth, atmosphere - all gases which surround earth
Define prevailing winds.
Global winds that blow in a fairly constant pattern, trade winds - low latitude prevailing winds, westerlies - mid latitude prevailing winds, polar easterlies - high latitude prevailing winds
Information regarding world population and world population growth.
Our current world population - 7.2 billion, grows slow and steady, the population more than doubled between 1800 and 1950. World population density - 30% of the earth's surface is land and most of it is inhabitable, people looking to live where it is flat and fertile and there are sources of fresh water as well as mild climates.
Habit and custom determine the rules, very limited
Small business owners make decisions about what to produce, based on free enterprise - the idea that individuals have the right to own, operate, and profit from their own businesses, no country in the world has this economy (mixed market)
The government decides what gets made, how it gets made, and how it will be distributed, socialism is the theory behind it
What is the difference between subsistence and commercial agriculture?
Subsistence - producing just enough food for a family or village to survive, commercial - farming producing mass, agriculture organized as a business
Define negative population growth
When the death rate exceeds the birth rate
Define demography and cartography
Demography - the study of statistics such as births and deaths, population, cartography - the study of drawing/maps
The power to rule belongs to one single individual, oldest and most common form, inheritance or military power, monarchy or dictatorship
Information regarding world religions
Major world religions - Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, fastest growing - Islam, largest organized - Christianity
Information regarding population pyramids
Graph that shows how the population of an area is divided between age and by sex, created in 1800s, change over time, influenced by migration into and out of the country
Information regarding early civilization
The earliest humans were nomads - groups of hunters and gatherers who had no fixed home, agricultural revolution - major shift occurred 10,000 years ago, North Africa warmed considerably, nomads forced to settle near river valleys and coastal plains, shift from gathering food to producing food. Cultural hearths - early centers of civilizations whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas
Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, China, and Mexico
Developed vs. developing countries
Developed - main economic activity is manufacturing, low annual population growth, high life expectancy, wealthy nation, high median age, high literacy rate. Developing - main economic activity is manufacturing, high annual population growth, low life expectancy, poor nation, low median age, low literacy rate
Define birth rate and death rate
Birth rate - the number of births per year per 1,000 people ; death rate - the number of deaths per year per 1,000 people
Where is Latin America?
Southern/western hemisphere, most people live in central Mexico and the east coast of South America
What are the regions of Latin America/The Caribbean
Middle America - consists of Mexico and the 7 countries of central America, Caribbean - the Bahamas, Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico), the Lesser Antilles (1000 tiny islands located north of Venezuela), South America (13 countries)
Significance of Lake Maracaibo and Titicaca
Maracaibo - largest lake in Latin America, tons of oil reserves, inlet of the Caribbean Sea ; Titicaca - world's highest, large, navigable lake
The impact of mountains
Sierra Madre Oriental (east), Sierra Madre del Sur (south), Sierra Madre Occidental (west), the Andes - longest mountain range in the world
The change in climate due to elevation. Tierra caliente - hot land, sea level and 2, 500 ft. pineapples, sugarcane, rice, bananas, cacao ; tierra templada - temperate land, 2, 500 ft. and 6, 500 ft. cacao, corn, manioc, cotton, most Mexicans live here ; tierra fria - cold land, 6, 500 to 10, 000 ft. potatoes, wheat, barley, oats, corn, rye, maize.
Where do most Latin Americans live?
Tierra templada, central Mexico and the east coast of South America
Deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest
Deforestation - the destruction of the rainforest, 20% is already destroyed, leading causes - slash and burn farming, commercial exploitation of trees, cattle ranching, construction of the trans-amazon highway
Slash and burn farming
Population growth, greater demand for food, governments are pushing farmers to produce more food fast, burn portions of your land and ash fertilizes the soil, rework the soil every 3-4 years, depletes the soil of nutrients
Commercial exploitation of trees
Tons of money can be made from exporting lumber, governments provide financial incentives for developers, teak and mahogany
Cattle need TONS of space to graze, export beef globally
Construction of the trans-amazon highway
Spans from the east coast to the west coast
Small plots of land farmed by campensino's, rarely own their own land, pay rent to a wealthy landowner, subsistence farming
Large, agricultural estates owned by wealthy families or corporations, farms are highly mechanized, commercial agriculture
Dialects that blend elements of indigenous, European, African, and Asian languages
A blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith
River system that is often used for trade and hydroelectric power
Southern part of the Mexican plateau
Info regarding the Danube and Rhine river
Danube - the most important river in Eastern Europe, emties into the Black Sea, Rhine - the most important river in Western Europe
Where do most Russians live?
West of the Ural Mountains
Natural boundary between Europe and Asia
Name for the common landmass of Europe and Asia
Info on the Sahara and Rub' al Khali Desert
Sahara - the largest hot desert in the world, 3.5 million square miles ; the Rub' al Khai - located on the Arabian Peninsula, "empty quarter", appx. 250,000 square miles
Rocky, barren earth
Nomadic herders, roam the desert with their herds searching for water
Longest river in the world
'border' in Arabic, a transition zone, steppe, averages about 14-20 inches of rainfall/year
Most people live near the water, North African nations have a lower standard of living than the nations of the Arabian Peninsula
The process by which productive land turns into desert pavement following the destruction of vegetation
What causes desertification?
Drought - long periods of extreme dryness and water shortages, overworking - population increase, greater food demand, soil is overworked ; overgrazing - advance in technology led to the ability to access more ground water, many bedouin abandon their nomadic lifestyle
Largest ethnic group in the Middle East
What does it mean to be an Arab?
Historically meant you were a descendent of the Arabian Peninsula, now means you speak the Arabic language and have close ties to the region, most Arabs are Muslim, Muslims practice the religion of Islam
Three most populated nations in the Middle East
Egypt, Turkey, Iran
Main language of the Middle East
What does Islam mean?
Peace and submission to God
What is the Qur'an and the Hadith?
Qur'an - the sacred text of Islam, the direct, unchangeable word of God ; Hadith - sayings of Muhammad
What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
The Creed: "There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger", daily prayer - Muslims must pray 5x a day, charity or alms to the poor, fasting from sun up to sun down during the holy month of Ramadan, the Haij Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime
What is the significance of Ramadan?
A holy month during which Muslims must fast from sun up to sun down
What are the regions of Latin America/The Carribbean
Windward vs. leeward
Windward - the wet side of the mountain as a result of rain shadow effect, leeward - the dry side
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World Geography and Cultures
Richard G. Boehm
World Geography: Building a Global Perspective
Celeste Fraser, Thomas J. Baerwald
Richard G. Boehm
World Geography Today
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