Anatomy and Physiology Unit 4

Which ONE of the following conveys sensory information about pain, pressure, non-discriminative touch, and temperature to the brain?
- Ventral spinocerebellar tract
- Gracilis fasciculus
- Cuneate fasciculus
- Spinothalamic tract
- Dorsal spinocerebellar tract
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 176
Terms in this set (176)
Matching Question: Location of the brain that controls body orientation and the primary gustatory cortex.Parietal LobeMatching Question: The smallest lobe of the brain the controls special sense (taste, hearing) and visceral sensation.InsulaMatching Question: A ban of white matter that acts as a bridge between the cerebral hemispheresCorpus CallosumMatching Question: The part of the brain between the pons and spinal cordMedulla OblongataMatching Question: The portion of the cerebral cortex where visual impulses from the retina are interpretedOccipital LobeMatching Question: A large fissure running from the back to front of the brain.Longitudinal FissureMatching Question: Lobe that controls special sense (hearing, smell) as well as learning, memory, and emotionsTemporal LobeThe third ventricle connects the lateral ventricles with the fourth ventricleTrueThe type of reflex that produces a reflex action on the opposite side of the body to where the stimulus was perceived Unilateral Contralateral Uniform Singular GeometricContralateralThis term describes a bundle of axons in the CNS. Nucleus Ganglion Tract NerveTractThe hippocampus and reticular formation are part of the. Medulla Oblongata Circle of Willis Limbic System Basal Nuclei Frontal LobeLimbic SystemCranial nerves V and VIII originate from the... Internal Capsule Pons Ramus Third Ventricle ArachnoidPonsWhat is the function of type C fibers... Conduct sensory information associated with tough Conduct sensory information associated with pain Conduct sensory information associated with pressure All of the aboveAll of the aboveWhich answer best describes threshold potential? - Local flow of ions across the plasma membrane - Depolarization of plasma membrane from -70mV to about -55mV - Production of consecutive graded potentials - Action potential following all or nothing principleDepolarization of plasma membrane from -70mV to about -55mVAll of the following are characteristics of ions with respect to the plasma membrane EXCEPT? - Ions do not contain and electrical charge - Ions flow down electrochemical gradients - Flow through ions channels which are composed of protein -Ions flow and create a currentIons do not contain an electrical chargeThe rods of the eye function in bright lights and detect color. True or FalseFalseRhodopsin is the photopigment located in the rod cells. True or FalseTrueThermoreceptors detect tastants. True or FalseFalseNearsightedness is called hyperopia. True or FalseFalseThe middle ossicle of the ears is the incus. True or FalseTrueWhat is the arterial supply of the choroid? - Orbital artery - Ophthalmic arteries - None of the above - Ciliary arteriesCiliary arteriesWhat are the following ways in which gustatory transduction occurs? - Depolarization of gustatory receptor - All of the above - Use of secondary messengers - Direct passageAll of the aboveWhat are the functions of the ciliary body? - support the iris - support the lens - all of the above - adjust the curvature of the lensAll of the aboveWhich of the following layers of the eye functions to bend light towards the pupil and limits the amount of light that enters the eye? - sclera - cornea - none of the above - choroidCorneaWhat component of the brain is responsible for enabling us to remember smells as well as bring back memories associated with smell? Please choose the best answer. - none of the above - primary olfactory cortex - limbic system - hypothalamusLimbic SystemThe oculomotor nerve innervates muscles that control eye movements. True or False?TrueOligodendrocytes play a protective role in the CNS removing cellular debris. True or False?FalseThe retina is located at the back of the globe of the eye and contains the photoreceptors. True or False?TrueThe fovea centralis is the portion of the retina that is referred to as the blind spot where there are no photoreceptors True or False?FalseCranial nerve III is the optic nerve. True or False?FalseWhich ONE of the following terms best describes the adding together of postsynaptic potentials generated in quick succession at the same location to produce a stringer postsynaptic potential? - neutralization - temporal summation - ESP-IPSP cancellation - retrograde transmission - spatial summationTemporal summationWhat is the anatomical term for the nerve that divides to form the common fibular and tibial nerves?Sciatic nerveWhich ONE of the following nerves of the cervical plexus innervates the diaphragm? - phrenic nerve - transverse cutaneous nerve - supraclavicular nerve - lesser occipital nerve - ansa cervicalisPhrenic nerveWhich ONE of the following cranial nerves conveys motor information to the muscles of facial expression? - vagus nerve - oculomotor nerve - accessory nerve - trigeminal nerve - facial nerveFacial nerveWhich THREE of the following structures are major components of the basal ganglia? - mammillary bodies - internal capsule - globus pallidus - insula - putamen - caudate nucleus1. Globus pallisdus 2. Putamen 3. Caudate nucleusMatching Question: The elevated portions of the cerebral cortex.GyriMatching Questions: The region of the diencephalon that acts as a major relay center for sensory stimuli.ThalamusMatching Questions: The shallow grooves in the cortex of the cerebrum.SulciMatching Question: The spaces within the brain where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.VentriclesMatching Questions: Each half of the cerebrum.HemisphereMatching Questions: The part of the brain is composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla.Brain stemMatching Question: Individual subdivisions of the cerebrum that regulate specific functions.LobesMatching Questions: The collective name for the three brain coverings.MeningesThe glossopharyngeal nerve supplies the... - lower jaw and thoracic organs - tongue and pharynx - ear and pharynx - face and eye - ear and noseTongue and pharynxMatching Question: A space where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced.VentriclesMatching Questions: The bridge of white tissue that connects one hemisphere to another.Corpus callosumMatching Question: Main area of the brain involved with emotion and learning.Limbic systemMatching Question: Fluid that nourishes and lubricates the brain and spinal cord.Cerebrospinal fluidMatching Questions: Pair of oval masses of gray matter the form most of the diencephalon.ThalamusThe term that describes a cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS... - ganglion - nucleus - tract - nerveGanglionThe optic nerve is the eighth cranial nerve.. True or false?FalseThe automatic nervous system is controlled by the... - reticular formation - hypothalamus - sensory area - trochlear nerve - bibrilsHypothalamusThe glossopharyngeal nerve is cranial nerve number 9. True or false?TrueThe phenomenon of an action potential that occurs fully when a stimulus is strong enough to elicit a response can be best described as? - threshold potential - threshold potential - graded potential - all or nothingAll or nothingWhat are the factors that contribute to creating a resting membrane potential? - all of the above - maintenance of resting membrane potential through Na+/K+ ATPases - movement of cations through leakage channels - trapped anions in the cytosolAll of the aboveVoltage gated channels open in response to which of the following? - change in membrane potential - all of the above - closing of the inactivation gate - closing of the activation gateAll of the aboveThe odor threshold does not exist and you can NOT 'become accustomed' to a smell over time. True or false?FalseThe stapes is in contact with the oval window of the ear. True or false?TrueThe equilibrium apparatus consists of the... - vestibule and semicircular canals - choroid and retina - cochlea and auditory tube - free nerve endings and follicles - cilia and taste budsVestibule and semicircular canalsSalty, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami are the five primary tastes. True or false?TrueOlfactory epithelium is involved in the sense of... - gustation - balance - smell - taste - painSmellThe vitreous body is composed of which of the following? - none of the above - proteoglycans - both A and B - collagenBoth A and B (proteoglycans and collagen)With respect to the neural tunica, which neural layer contains photoreceptors? - retina - fovea centralis - macula lutea - none of the aboveRetinaHow many different taste sensations are there? - 3 - 4 - none of the above - 55What are the following ways in which gustatory transduction occurs? - direct passage - depolarization of gustatory receptor - all of the above - use of secondary messengersAll of the aboveThe fungiform papillae are innervated by which cranial nerve? - glossopharyngeal nerve - hypoglossal - none of the above - facialFacial nerveThe longitudinal fissure divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres. True or false?TrueThe occipital lobe of the brain is involved with visual interpretation. True or false?TrueTears are produced by the salivary glands. True or false?FalseThe filiform papillae are small, conical taste buds located over the most dorsal surface of the tongue. True or false?TrueThe lens is an avascular, transparent dome over the anterior part of the eye. True or False?TrueWhich ONE of the following types of neurotransmitter is released by both preganglionic and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers? - norepinephrine - epinephrine - acetylcholine - dopamine - serotoninAcetylcholineThe ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves are the major branches of which cranial nerve?Trigeminal nerve (5th nerve)Which ONE of the following numerals represents the cranial nerve that controls the muscles that regulated the aperture of the pupil and the shape of the lens? - V - IV - II - III - IIIWhich TWO of the following are the components of the central nervous system? - spinal nerves - spinal cord - cranial nerves - brainSpinal cord and brainWhich ONE of the following cranial nerves conveys sensory information from the baroreceptors and the carotid sinus to the brain? - spXI - crXI - X - IX - XIIIXThe pons is in the middle of the brain stem. True or false?TrueMatching Questions: The part of the brain is composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla.Brain stemThe cells responsible for the myelination of the Central Nervous System are the Schwann cells. True or false?FalseExcept for the first two pairs, all of the cranial nerves arise from the vertebral column. True or False?FalseMatching Questions The part of the brain that connects with the spinal cord.Medulla oblongataMatching Questions: The part of the brain is located between the cerebrum and the brainstem.DiencephalonMatching Questions: The uppermost portion of the brain stem.MidbrainMatching Questions: A subdivision of the cerebral hemispheres.LobeMatching Questions: A deep groveFissureThe parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the 'fight or flight' response. True or false?FalseWhich of the following fibers has the fastest speed of propagation? - fiber C - no answer text provided - fiber A - fiber BFiber AWhich of the following can be described as the resting membrane potential? - voltage on one side of the plasma membrane - voltage between two points - the electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane - the difference in charge between two pointsThe electrical potential difference across the plasma membraneMechanically gated ion channels open in response to? - pressure - vibration - all of the above - touchPressureMatching Question: The passageway that connects the middle ear cavity with the throat.Eustachian tubeMatching Question: The fluid is contained within the membraneous labyrinth of the inner ear.EndolymphMatching Question: Another name for the projecting part, or auricle, of the ear.PinnaMatching Question: The scientific name for eardrum.Tympanic membraneMatching Question: The membrane-covered space that conducts sound waves from the stapes to the fluid of the inner ear.Oval windowMatching Question: This connects the inner ear with the middle ear and supports the membranous saccule and utricle within it.VestibuleMatching Questions: The fluid of the inner ear is contained with the bony labyrinth surrounding the membranous labyrinth.PerilymphMatching Question: The three small bones within the middle ear cavity.OssiclesThe aqueous humor is the fluid in front of the lens of the eye. True or false?TrueRhodopsin is the visual pigment found in rods. True or false?TrueThere is only one cranial nerve that is responsible for the sensory information of the tongue. True or false?FalsePlease identify the correct pathway involved in determining whether a smell has been experienced before. - olfactory nerves>olfactory bulb>limbic system>brain - none of the above - olfactory bulb>olfactory nerves>brain>limbic system - olfactory nerves>olfactory bulb>brain>limbic systemOlfactory nerves>olfactory bulb>brain>limbic systemWhich of the following layers of the eye functions to bend light towards the pupil and limits the amount of light that enters the eye. - cornea - none of the above - sclera - choroidCorneaWhich of the following best describes the process in which a few molecules of an odorant need to be present to initiate a response? - transduction - adaptation - none of the above - generating an action potentialAdaptationOligodendrocytes play a protective role in the CNS removing cellular debris. True or false?FalseThe vallate papillae are the largest of the taste buds and are usually arranged in an inverted V-shape at the back of the tongue. True or false?TrueThe optic disc is the blind spot of the retina where there are no photoreceptors. True or false?TrueOur sense of equilibrium lets us detect potentially harmful substance like smoke or toxic gasses. True or false?FalseBipolar neurons are most likely to be found in which TWO of the following? - spinal cord - olfactory bulbs - epidermis - retina of the eye - cerebellumOlfactory bulbs and retina of the eyeWhich ONE of the following categories of nerve fiber usually conducts action potentials at the fastest speeds? - A type - B type - C type - D typeA typeWhich of the following are the TWO major anatomical divisions of the nervous system? - PNS - TNS - CNS - QNS - INSPNS and CNSMost of the cranial nerves supply structures in the head. True or false?TrueThe arachnoid is the innermost layer of the meninges. True or false?FalseThe function of the dural sinuses is to... - supply blood to the brain - drain blood from the brain - surround the corpus collosum - manufacture CSF - separate the thalamusDrain blood from the brainThe cerebrum is divided by the... - cerebrum - cervical plexus - occipital lobe - longitudinal fissure - central sulcusLongitudinal fissureWhich of the following cranial nerves is not involved with innervation of a muscle that moves the eyeball? - abducens nerve - oculomotor nerve - optic nerve - trochlear nerveOptic nerveWhich of the following is involved in summation? - quick loss of intensity - combination with another graded potential - graded potential travels along the plasma membrane - all of the aboveAll of the aboveAll of the following are examples of ion channels EXCEPT: - voltage-gated channels - ligand-gated channels - leakage channels - magnetic channelsMagnetic channelsLigand channels open in response to all of the following EXCEPT? - conformational change of the ligand-gated ion channel - binding of ligands to ligand-binding domain - binding of specific chemical ligands - all of the aboveAll of the aboveThe iris contains the pupillary constrictor and dilator muscles. True or false?TrueSound waves leave the inner ear by way of the round window. True or false?TrueWhich cells are responsible for "black and white" vision? - cone cells - rod cells - both A and B - none of the aboveRod cellsWhich layer of the eye is responsible for draining excess fluid from the posterior cavity of the eye? - cornea - sclera - choroid - none of the aboveChoroidThe retina is located at the back of the globe of the eye and contains the photoreceptors. True or false?TrueThe rod cells of the retina are sensitive to low light levels and provide the black and white vision. True or false?TrueWhat is the term for the dural fold that projects horizontally between the cerebellum inferiorly and the cerebellum superiorly?Tentorium cerebelliWhat is the anatomical term for the involuntary nervous system that is composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?automatic nervous systemWhich one of the following is NOT a part of the peripheral nervous system? - automatic sensory nerve fibers - spinal nerves - somatic sensory nerve fibers - enteric nervous system - spinal cordSpinal cordThe pia mater is... - the network of vessels that produces cerebrospinal fluid - the part of the brain that connects with the spinal cord - the innermost layer of the meninges - a raised area on the surface of the cerebrum - the middle layer of the meningesThe innermost layer of the meningesMatching Question: The nerve with three branches that carries general sensory impulses from the face and head.Trigeminal nerveMatching Question: The nerve that supplies the muscles of facial expression.Facial nerveMatching Question: The nerve that supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities.Vagus nerveMatching Question: The nerve that contains sensory fibers for hearing.Vestibulocochlear nerveMatching Question: The nerve that controls the tongue muscle.Hypoglossal nerveMatching Question: the nerve that controls contraction of most eye muscles.Oculomotor nerveMatching Question: The nerve that carries the impulses for the sense of smell.Olfactory nerveMatching Question: The sensory nerve that carries visual impulses.Optic nerveMatching Question: The nerve that carries motor impulses to two neck muscles.Accessory nerveThe vagus nerve is the longest of the cranial nerves, extending from the head all the way down into the abdominal cavity. True or false?TrueA nerve and a tract are the same things. True or false?FalseThe cell body of the neuron is called the: - soma - axon - hillock - dendriteSomaThe nervous plexus that arises from the C1-C4 vertebrae is called the: - lumbar plexus - sacral plexus - cervical plexus - coccygeal plexus - brachial plexusCervical plexusWhich of the following is not associated with the ventricles? - horns - cerebral aqueduct - arachnoid villi - foramina - choroid plexusArachnoid villiAt what point does the absolute refractory period begin? - during repolarization - during hyperpolarization - as the action potential is triggered - after hyperpolarizationAs the action potential is triggeredWhat is the difference between continuous conduction and saltatory conduction? - myelination axons - action potential - nodes of Ranvier - lack of voltage-gated sodium channelsMyelination axonsWhich of the following describes leakage channels? - open and close randomly - independent of any stimuli - plasma membrane contains a higher portion of potassium - all of the aboveAll of the aboveMatching Question: the avascular white of the eye.ScleraMatching Question: thin, transparent film that covers the inside of the eyelidsConjunctivaMatching Question: the colored part of the eye that regulates the size of the pupil.IrisMatching Question: another name for the blind spot, the region where the optic nerve connects with the eye.Optic diskMatching Question: the area of the retina where the vision is most accurate.Fovea centralisMatching Question: part of the eye that supports the lens and iris, as well as adjusts the curvature of the lens.Ciliary bodyMatching Question: the transparent elliptical structure held behind the aperture of the pupil and refracts light to a focal point on the retinaLensMatching Question: The central opening in the iris.PupilA term related to the sense of taste: - aural - tactile - gustatory - proprioceptive - thermalGustatoryThe suspensory ligaments of the eye attach to the... - choroid - conjunctiva - lens - pupil - retinaLensMatching Question: the region of the inner ear that contains the receptors for equilibrium.Vestibule and semicircular canalsMatching Question: The scientific name for ear wax.CerumenMatching Question: The external part of the eat also known as an auricle.PinnaMatching Question: the structure responsible for sounds transduction.Organ of CortiMatching Question: The small bones of the middle ear are collectively called this.OssiclesWhich of the following receives olfactory nerve fibers and contains glomeruli? - olfactory bulbs - olfactory tracts - olfactory nerves - none of the aboveOlfactory bulbsWhich area of the eye is responsible for draining aqueous humor? - scleral venous sinus - fibrous tunica - suspensory ligaments - none of the aboveScleral venous sinusWhich of the following answer choices identifies the tunics of the eye? - vascular - neural - fibrous - all of the aboveAll of the aboveMechanoreceptor function to detect the sensations of taste and olfaction. True or false?FalseThe corpus callosum prevents the passage of harmful substances and pathogens from the blood to the brain. True or false?FalseThe tip of the tongue is most sensitive to sour tastes. True or false?False