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Terms in this set (126)
Tariff that increases the price of any imported goods that compete with American made products and thus protects American manufacturers from foreign competition in the markets. This was part of the American System.
Speaker of the House, senator from Kentucky, and National Republican candidate for president who was the main spokesperson for the American System. He became a very important politician who was active throughout the first half of the 1800s.
19th century term for transportation infrastructure such as roads, canals, and railroads. The federal government was very hesitant to fund these projects and it was therefore up to the state governments and private companies to fund these projects.
Program proposed by Henry Clay and others to help foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical regions of the country. It included a protective tariff, a budget for internal improvements, and a national bank.
Canal linking the Hudson River at Albany with the Great Lakes at Buffalo that helped to commercialize the farms of the Great Lakes watershed and to channel that commerce into New York City. It was the most successful internal improvement project constructed in the early 1800s.
Roads built by private companies that charge travelers for each use. These types of roads were the most common roads in the country before 1830. most of these roads were built by private corporations with the support of state governments.
McCulloch v. Maryland
A case in which John Marshall decided in favor of the federal government. Maryland had tried to tax the national bank but was denied. Marshall said that states could not tax any federal agency and also said that the Constitution gave Congress implied powers such as chartering the national bank.
Builder of the first practical steamboat. He built it in 1807 and used it to transport goods between Albany and New York City. His invention inspired many others to build steamboats and entirely changed the way goods were transported in the US.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
One of the first large railroads in the US. It connected the major port city of Baltimore to the canals and rivers of the western territories. The railroad is still operational.
Deforestation of the Northwest
The process of cutting down New England's massive forests for farming lands and easy profits for poor farmers. Farming was becoming easier and land became more valuable. Wood could also be sold for profit if the farmer needed it. By 1850, more than half of New England's trees had been cut down.
Rise in standard of living
The rise in the consumption of finished goods in the rural areas. General stores began to carry cloth, sugar, coffee, salt, flour, and even samples of items that could be ordered from far away. More consumer goods allowed houses to feel nicer and appear better to the outside world.
The process of doing semiskilled labor in the rural areas of the US. Workers would be given raw materials to turn into finished goods that were then shipped back to the factories for further processing. This system allowed poor families to make additional money on top of their farming activities.
Southern and Northern migrants
Southern migrants often raised livestock to sell to the growing markets of the east coast. They did so without much technology and were very concerned with their neighbors and friends. Northern migrants raised and exported most of the nation's wheat and did so using new farming technologies.
The dramatic change in the style and management of American homes in the 1820s. As new technologies made farming easier, family sizes began to shrink. Also, women began to take up traditional women jobs like housework. New notions of appearance, privacy, and household comfort began to completely change American homes.
Landscape of privacy
The rise of neighborhoods in the Northwest. As houses became nicer and cleaner, the entire surrounding area also followed. Soon, many houses were painted and had fences around the property. Ornamental trees and flower were also planted to make things look nicer.
Nationalist Republicans who favored many Federalist economic programs such as protective tariffs and a national bank. They came about after the War of 1812.
Built the first textile mill in the United States. He was a worker in England and brought the secret designs for the mill to America. He built his mill in 1790 and was responsible for the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in the United States.
Francis Cabot Lowell
Wealthy Bostonian who built and operated integrated textile mills in eastern Massachusetts. He did so with the help of the Boston Associates. They built their first mill at Waltham and soon expanded to many other towns across the region.
A system in which young women went to work in the factory towns and lived independently. This system helped to break male domination of female lives and also contributed to the rise of New England factory towns. This system also allowed for cheap labor in the new textile mills.
A trade that employs workers, mainly women, who work in their homes to produce items for subcontractors. This usually happened in the clothing industry and also led to the workers being paid much less than skilled workers. This is the origin of the term sweatshop.
A name given by Southerners to indicate the economic and political importance of cotton production in the southern states.
The policy of Southern slave owners towards their slaves. They treated them as children and supervised them closely. Harsh punishments were stopped and treatment of the slaves improved. This came from a desire to increase productivity.
Economics of scale
Term used in both industry and agriculture to describe the economic advantages of concentrating capital, units of production, and output.
Small local farmers that produced a small surplus to sell at local markets. They were poor and didn't own any slaves. Because they relied on sales to make all their money, they were entirely dependent on the market. They shared their tools and goods with each other and were very friendly with their neighbors.
A national political party formed in 1834 in opposition to the presidency of Andrew Jackson and his policy of expanding the power of the president. The Whigs favored congressional funding for internal improvements and other forms of federal support for economic development.
John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights. He also was involved in the South Carolina nullification thing.
Safety Fund Law
A New York state law that required banks to pool a fraction of their resources to protect both bankers and small stockholders in case of bank failures.
Hard Money Democrats
Democrats who, in the 1830s and 1840s, wanted to eliminate paper money and regarded banks as center of trickery and privilege.
Provisions that protected directors and stockholders of corporations from corporate debts by separating those debts from personal liabilities.
tax-supported public schools built by state and local governments.
state colleges established for the training of teachers
Prison system designed to reform criminals and reduce expenses through the sale of items produced in workshops. Prisoners slept in solitary cells, marched in military formation, and were forbidden to speak to other prisoners at any time.
Boston reformer who traveled throughout the country campaigning for humane, state-supported asylums for the insane. She was an influential reformer and was involved with the women rights movement.
A prominent minister that insisted that it was the nation's citizenry more than its government that should take charge of building a better society. He was a prominent figure in the temperance movement.
American Temperance Society
The first American temperance organization. It was headed by Lyman Beecher and had 1.5 million members in 1835.
Fifteen Gallon Law
Massachusetts Law passed in 1838 that said that merchants could only sell alcohol in amounts of 15 gallons or more. This law effectively outlawed every bar in the state.
African Church of Philadelphia
The first independent Black church in the United States. It was founded in 1790.
The idea that increased equality would lead to Blacks taking over the country. It was used as an argument against abolition by Democrats.
American Colonization Society
Established by elite gentlemen of the middle and upper south states in 1816 this organization encouraged voluntary emancipation of slaves to be followed by their relocation to Liberia.
Movement begun in the north about 1830 to abolish slavery immediately and without compensation to owners. The most famous abolitionist was William Lloyd Garrison and he published his newspaper "The Liberator".
American Anti-Slavery Society
Organization created by northern abolitionist in 1833 that called for immediate uncompensated emancipation of the slaves.
Abolitionist tactic to force the nation to confront the slavery question by flooding the mails both north and south with anti-slavery literature. Their hope was to raise controversy within an area that was the province of the federal government.
A full time temperance lecturer that believed that fancy foods and alcohol led to sex and disease. His followers built schools for boys that restricted diets and helped to increase self-control.
New York Magdalen Society
A New York group of women who attempted to eliminate prostitution and help former prostitutes. It fell apart in 1831 and its members formed the Female Moral Reform Society.
Along with her sister, Angelina, this elite South Carolina woman moved north and campaigned against slavery and for temperance and women's rights. The Grimke sisters were two of the leading women's rights advocates.
Seneca Falls Conference
First national convention for women's rights. It was held in New York in 1848. The main issue was the right to vote and the convention wrote a document similar to the Declaration of Independence but for women's rights.
Hero of the war of 1812, president of the United States from 1828-1836 and founder of the Democratic Party, he signed the Indian Removal Act, destroyed the National Bank and signed the Force Bill. He was a psychopath.
Lewis and Clark
Explorers commissioned in 1804 by President Jefferson to survey the Louisiana Purchase. They traveled from St. Louis to Oregon with the help Sacajawea and met many natives along the way.
Panic of 1819
Economic depression caused by a recovery of European agriculture, reduced supply of precious metals from Mexico and Peru and American over-expansion of credit.
Compromise that maintained sectional balance in Congress by admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and by drawing a line west from the 36/30 parallel with slavery forever outlawed above the line.
Second Bank of the United States
A mixed private-public corporation chartered by Congress in 1816. The national government deposited its revenue in the bank. The bank issued notes that became a type of national currency and the bank exercised central control over the nation's monetary and credit systems. Jackson destroyed the bank 1832.
Prominent Republican who valued Jeffersonian ideas, personal charm and Party discipline. He was extremely powerful and he and his followers formed the Democratic Party. He was elected President in 1836.
The group of congressmen who traditionally chose the party's presidential candidates. But eh 1820's the American public distrusted the Caucus as undemocratic since only one party contested for power. The Caucus was replaced by the national nominating convention.
John Quincy Adams
New England's favorite son, the son of a Federalist president, Secretary of State under Monroe and a Republican he won the election of 1824 through the Corrupt Bargain.
Candidate for president supported by delegates from his home state. John Quincy Adams had the support of New England because of his father's reputation.
Actions taken during the election 1824 where Henry Clay sold his support during the House vote in the disputed election to John Quincy Adams for exchange for appointment as Secretary of State. The fallout from this dominated the Adams administration.
Foreign policy doctrine proposed by Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams in 1823 that denied the right of European powers to establish new colonies in the Americas while maintaining the United States' right to acquire new territory.
An ambitious program for national development. Adams planned to build roads, canals, a national university and a lighthouse of the skies. He received very few votes because people associated federal public works with taxes.
VanBuren's political allies that united behind Andrew Jackson. They were committed to state's rights, minimal government, slavery and the preservation of the Union.
Election of 1828
A very mean election between Jackson and Adams. Adams criticized Jackson's marriage and made his private life a public issue. The Adams campaign was accused of being dishonorable and accidentally made Jackson more popular. It was one of the first elections decided by popularity instead of politics.
March 4, 1829
Andrew Jackson's inauguration that was attended by 15-20,000 people. After his speech the cheering crowd followed him to the White House and practically destroyed it in their drunken revelry.
System by which the victorious political party rewards its supporters with government jobs. Jackson used this system extensively and replaced about 10% of all appointed officials.
The name for remaining Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles. Congress provided them with tools, seeds and schools to help them adjust to normal life.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Legislation that offered the native peoples of the lower south the option of removal to federal lands west of the Mississippi. In 1838 those that had not moved were forcibly moved by the U.S. Army.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
A Supreme Court case where it was decided that natives were not independent people but were reliant on the federal government. John Marshall ruled that the natives therefore could not claim that they were sovereign nations.
Worcester v. Georgia
1832 Supreme Court case that banned the extension of Georgia law into native lands. This was intended to protect the natives but was ignored by Andrew Jackson. Jackson didn't act as Georgia ignored the decision and encroached on native lands.
Trail of Tears
The forced march of 18,000 Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahoma. This was ordered in 1838 by Martin Van Buren. Over 4,000 natives died on the way. This atrocity actually strengthened Jackson's reputation as an enemy of the rule of law.
Tariff of 1828, 1832
A tariff passed in 1828 by Jackson that was supposed to protect raw wool, flax, molasses, hemp, and hard liquor. The South called it the Tariff of Abominations. The rates were lowered in 1832 but it was still unpopular. It provoked the nullification crisis.
A legal theory that a state in the US has the right to invalidate any federal law that the state deems unconstitutional. John C Calhoun was the foremost proponent. The South Carolina nullification crisis provoked the Force Bill.
William Lloyd Garrison
A white abolitionist who was the most influential of all American antislavery leaders. Called for immediate emancipation with no compensation for masters. Wrote the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper. Declared a war on slavery in 1831. Founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
A tariff, proposed by Henry Clay, that ended the Nullification Crisis dispute between Andrew Jackson and South Carolina. The compromise tariff repealed the Tariff of Abominations and reduced duties on foreign goods gradually over a decade to the levels set by the Tariff of 1816.
Internal conflict in the Andrew Jackson Cabinet that contributed to the rise of Martin van Buren over John C Calhoun. Dispute was over the way Calhoun and others in the Cabinet treated Senator Eaton and his new wife (whose husband had recently died).
Jackson's group of unofficial advisors consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues. Jackson used the Kitchen Cabinet more than his official Cabinet.
Tabling a Bill
Act of removing a petition or bill from consideration without debate by placing it at the end of the legislative agenda so that it will not be reached during the session.
Recharter of 1832
Nicholas Biddle applied to recharter the Second Bank of the United States in 1832 on the urging of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Instead of passing it, Jackson used this as an opportunity to veto the bill and kill the national bank.
Bank Veto Message
A speech that Jackson gave after he vetoed the recharter of the national bank. It was a manifesto of Jacksonian democracy and stated that giving special privilege to certain people was anti-republican. It gained him lots of popularity in the 1832 election.
Roger B. Taney
A loyal Democrat that supported Jackson. He was a close advisor of Jackson and helped to write the Bank Veto Message. He was appointed as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by Jackson in 1835 when John Marshall died.
King Andrew I
A nickname given to President Jackson by his enemies, the Whigs. His supporters, "supporters of the king", were Tories and his enemies were the Whigs. It came about because many thought he was assuming too much power as president.
Deposit Act of 1836
Passed in 1836 and increased the number of banks receiving federal deposits and distributed the federal surplus to the states to be spent on roads, canals, and schools. The Act also limited the banks' ability to print new banknotes.
Document issued by Jackson in 1836 that said that speculators could only buy large parcels of land with gold and silver hard currency. Banknotes could only be used to purchase farm sized pieces of land. It was Jackson's final assault on paper money.
Panic of 1837
Economic panic that occurred in 1837 right after Van Buren took office. It was caused when the Bank of England cut off credit to firms that did business in the United States. This caused the price of cotton to decrease by 50%. New York banks then stopped specie payments. The economy collapsed and the seaport cities suffered most.
Independent Treasury Bill
Established the subtreasury. The federal government would hold and dispense its own money without needing banks. Taxes and land must be paid with specie. This allowed the government to regulate state banknotes.
William Henry Harrison
Hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe and ninth president of the United States. Harrison, a Whig, won the 1840 election on a "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign, which played up his credentials as a backwoods westerner and Indian fighter. Harrison died of pneumonia just four weeks after his inauguration.
Election of 1840
The election that completed the two party system. It was between Harrison and Van Buren. Harrison's reputation as a war hero and his folksy reputation allowed him to win lots of votes while the Panic of 1837 lost the election for Van Buren.
"Young America" movement
A group of young members of the Democratic Party who were interested in territorial expansion in the 1840s. They supported the idea of manifest destiny.
The belief that the United States was destined to grow from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Arctic to the tropics. Providence supposedly intended for Americans to have this area for a great experiment in liberty.
Editor of the New York Tribune, one of the most influential newspapers in the country. He was the one that said "Go West, young man".
outposts established by the Spanish along the northern frontier to aid in Christianizing the native peoples. They were also used to exploit their labor. They were one of the centers of Spanish colonial society.
Military posts constructed by the Spanish to protect the settlers from hostile Indians. They were also used as military bases to keep any non-Spanish settlers out of the area.
Santa Fe Trail
A trail from Santa Fe to Independence, Missouri that served to trade American manufactured goods and Mexican silver, horses, and furs.
Great American Desert
The treeless area in the plains that most Americans considered to be unsuitable for settlement. It was generally passed over by settlers who were on their way to settle Pacific coast areas like Oregon and California.
Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. The Book of Mormon was their version of the Bible. They were forced from their original home in New York to Utah.
The founder of Mormonism. He said that he had been spoken to by God and had been shown gold plates that contained the truth of the world. He and his followers practiced polygamy and were very unpopular. Smith was arrested in 1844 and an angry mob broke into the jail and killed him.
A term used by the Mormons to describe their "promised land" where they could prosper and live without persecution. They decided to build their promised land city at the spot that would then become Salt Lake City.
Republic of Texas
Independent nation founded in 1836 when a revolution by residents in the Mexican province of Texas won their independence. Sam Houston was the first president of the new nation.
Spanish-speaking settlers of Texas. The term comes from the Spanish word Tejas for Texas. They were the Mexican settlers among the white settlers in the Texas territory. They banded together with the Americans in the revolution.
Battle between Texas revolutionaries and the Mexican army at the San Antonio mission called the Alamo on March 6, 1836. All 187 Texans, including Davie Crockett and Jim Bowie, were killed.
The Mexican president and the commander of the Army during the revolution. He led the Mexican army that captured the Alamo and killed all the Texan defenders. He was badly beaten at San Jacinto River, ending the war.
The commander of the Texan revolutionary army. He beat the Mexican army at San Jacinto River, captured Santa Anna, and forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty making Texas independent. He was elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
The vice president under William Henry Harrison. After Harrison died, Tyler became president. He separated himself from the Whig party made the annexation of Texas a major point in his politics.
James K. Polk
Nominated to run for president. He ran on a platform that focused on annexing Texas and Oregon. By wanting to acquire Oregon, he got the votes of many western voters. His position on Texas was popular enough to win him the election.
Joint Resolution of Annexation
An act passed by both houses of Congress with a simple majority rather than the two thirds majority in the Senate. The resolution for annexation was passed in March 1845, making Texas the 15th slave state.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
A slogan chanted by Americans wanting to annex all of Oregon. Because Americans had only settled up to the 46th parallel, the US accepted a treaty splitting the territory at the 49th parallel.
General Zachary Taylor
A US general in the Mexican War. He commanded a tiny army of only 4,000 men but still managed to win the war. He was the most important general of the Mexican War. He was elected president in 1848.
May 9, 1846
The day that news arrived in Washington that Mexican troops had attacked and killed 11 American soldiers. This incident never happened and was simply made up as an excuse to attack Mexico. War was declared 2 days later.
Bear Flag Revolt
A group of American settlers led by Captain John C. Fremont in California that captured Sonoma. They established an independent California and drove out the Mexicans. They allowed themselves to be annexed by the United States.
A temporary stop in fighting. Often takes effect to end the fighting of a war while the official terms of a peace treaty are finalized.
"Old Fuss and Feathers"
The nickname for General Winfield Scott. He was brought in to replace Zachary Taylor and lead the US army in the Mexican War. He was ordered to break the armistice and was the general that captured Veracruz and Mexico City with the help of the Navy.
"Wicked and disgraceful war"
What Whigs and many Northeasterners called the Mexican War. The war was supported in the South and West but was opposed in the North. Whigs opposed the war because they thought that the country needed to be expanded over time, not over increased areas.
An amendment added to a Congressional bill that stated that slavery would be forever outlawed in any territory that was gained in the aftermath of the Mexican War. Almost all northern Democrats and northern Whigs voted for it and almost all southern Democrats and Whigs voted against it. It framed the debate over slavery for the next 15 years.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The treaty that ended the Mexican War. The treaty was approved by a vote of 38 to 14 even though it was signed against the wishes of president Polk. The treaty cut Mexico in half and increased the size of the US by 25%.
The concept that settlers of each territory would decide for themselves wether to allow slavery. This policy was a major point of contention in politics. This policy was mainly supported by Lewis Cass of Michigan.
The term for a group of Whigs that were against slavery.
A term used to describe people who opposed the expansion of slavery into the territories. It came from the name of a small political party in the election of 1848. They ran Martin Van Buren in the election of 1848. While they didn't win any electoral votes, they got about 14% of the popular vote.
California Convention of 1849
Californians held a convention in 1849 to write a constitution. They decided to outlaw slavery in California. They then applied to Congress for admission as a state. The admission of California as a free state broke the balance of 15 free and 15 slave states.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
A Supreme Court decision that stated that states had no responsibility to enforce the return of any fugitive slaves. The Court said that the return of fugitive slaves was a federal responsibility.
Compromise of 1850
A series of laws based on a program suggested by Henry Clay that was intended to settle all outstanding slavery issues. The compromise created California as a free state but also enacted a fugitive slave law that caused a lot of controversy.
Stephen A. Douglass
A Senator from Illinois who emerged as a leading Democrat in 1850 and led efforts to enact the Compromise of 1850 after Henry Clay decided to leave Washington in the summer of 1850 to escape the heat.
The region of the country west of Pennsylvania, north of the Ohio river, and east of the Mississippi.
Personal Liberty Laws
Laws enacted by nine northern states to prohibit the use of state facilities such as jails or law enforcement officials in the recapture of fugitive slaves. These laws were part of the resistance against the Fugitive Slave Act.
A small group who helped slaves escape bondage in the South. It took on legendary status and its role was greatly exaggerated. Many slaves were helped by "conductors" such as Harriet Tubman.
Abolitionist editor from Wisconsin who led a raid in 1854 to free a fugitive from custody. Was convicted in a federal court and appealed for a writ of habeas corpus from Wisconsin Supreme Court. Court freed him and declared the Fugitive Slave Law unconstitutional. Was ordered back to prison.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852 novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe that depicted all of the horrors of Southern slavery in great detail. The book went through several printings in the 1850s and early 1860s and helped to fuel abolitionist sentiment in the North. It was translated into 20 languages and was banned in parts of the South. It helped to shape how an entire generation saw slavery.
A term used to describe several groups that invaded or attempted to invade various Latin American areas in an attempt to add them to the slaveholding regions of the United States. The word originated from a Spanish term for pirate.
A document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force. It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as Cuba was below the established Missouri Compromise line.
A proslavery American adventurer from the South, he led an expedition to seize control on Nicaragua in 1855. He wanted to petition for annexation it as a new slave state but failed when several Latin American countries sent troops to oust him before the offer was made.