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Politics of the United States
Terms in this set (166)
In a democracy, the will of the majority
cannot be used to deprive rights to a member of a minority group
What is among the purposes of government outlined in the preamble of the constitution?
-defending the nation against foreign enemies
-insuring order and domestic tranquility
-promoting the general welfare of the citizens
What statement about the social contract theory is NOT true?
the state is a natural extension of people's family structure
"The Federalists" was written to-
win support for the Constitution in New York
The first state constitutions, adopted after independence-
placed most authority with the State governors
The Second Continental Congress was similar to the first in the-
composition of its members
The President's Cabinet is an example of informal amendment by-
In most cases involving judicial review, the courts have-
found the governmental actions in question to be constitutional
What is NOT an example of the checks and balances system?
the President makes an executive agreement
What is NOT true of the Constitution?
it has not been changed in 50 years
Each of the four methods of formal amendment-
demonstrates the principle of federalism
Congress can informally amend the Constitution by-
-passing basic legislation
-adding meaning to skeletal portions of the Constitution
-simply exercising many of its powers
What statement about informal amendments is TRUE?
some have been proposed and ratified as formal amendments
Concurrent powers are those that are-
exercised simultaneously by the National and the State governments
States must honor the legality of one another's civil laws because of the-
full faith and credit clause
What is an expressed power of the National Government?
the power to coin money
What powers can the National Government legally exercise?
expressed, implied and inherent powers
What statements about local government is accurate?
local government is a subunit of State government
In the case of "McCulloh v. Maryland", what was the supreme court ruling based upon?
In the United States, a political party is made up of a group of people who-
work to get candidates elected to political offices
What statement about Federalists is TRUE?
a strong national government was of great concern to them
Membership in either of the two major parties is-
based on personal choice
The two-party system developed in the United States mainly because-
conflicts about the Constitution created opposing viewpoints
An increasing number of Americans today-
identify with neither political party
What are significant reasons for nonvoting in United States elections today?
-long-term mental or physical illness on an election day
-rules and regulations that make registration and voting cumbersome
-apathy or distrust of politics has
What statement about suffrage is TRUE?
states require that any person wishing to vote must meet specific qualifications for citizenship, age and residence
Today many States require that all voters-
be citizens of the U.S. and residents of the State
What has been used to keep African American from voting?
-threats and social pressures
Gerrymandering in unfair because-
it sets district boundaries to decrease one group's voting strength
The oldest form of the nominating process in the United States is-
The most costly form of the nominating process in the United States is-
television and advertisement
In a close primary-
only declared party members may vote
The smallest geographic unit for conducting an election is a-
What ballots tend to encourage straight-ticket voting?
What are loopholes in the current federal election laws?
the use of soft money for "party building" activities, money spent by an independent person or group on behalf of a candidate, the prominent use of issue ads
The Constitution gives the power to set the date for holding congressional elections to-
What is NOT a shortcoming of current scientific polls?
they cannot accurately measure political preferences
The influence of public opinion on public policy is limited by what?
The term "public opinion" is misleading because
Americans belong to many different publics, each with a distinctive viewpoint
In the family, young children are likely to acquire-
some basic attitudes that will most likely affect their future opinions
The free, unrestricted power of majority public opinion in American politics is limited by-
checks and balances
The term "grass roots" refer to-
Interest groups are also called pressure groups mainly because-
they seek to put pressure on the government to affect policies
Single-interest groups try to affect elections based on-
each candidate's stand, in regard to the groups' interest
A public-interest group is different from any other interest group because it-
works to benefit many or all people, regardless of their affiliations
Interest groups are MOST interested in-
influencing specific public policies
Propaganda techniques aim to be-
What are qualifications for House member stated in the Constitution?
must be at least 25 years old must have been a citizen for at least 7 years, must live in the State from which chosen
What statement about the Senate in true?
it has two members from each state
The fact that all congressional districts in a State must have about the same number of people so that one person's vote is equal to another's, is due to-
Wesberry v. Sanders ruling
In Congress, screening bills for floor consideration is a major duty of-
The House may refuse to seat a member-elect only if he or she-
does not meet constitutional standards of age, citizenship, and residency
The number of Senate seats held by each State is-
fixed by the constitution
What group has generally used its power to gerrymander congressional districts?
On the average, what group of people occupies the majority of seats in congress?
white, middle-aged man
What are differences between the House and the Senate?
-size of membership
-length of term
-size of constituency
According to the Constitution, who has the sole power to impeach the President?
The House of Representatives
All treaties must be approved by a two-thirds vote of-
What did the Framers include the Necessary and Proper Clause in the Constitution?
to empower Congress to pass laws needed to carry out the expressed powers
Who has the power to propose Constitutional amendments?
What war powers are granted to congress?
-call forth the militia
-raise and support a navy
When the Senate's Republican caucus wants party members to vote for a bill, the person who determines how many votes can be counted on is the-
To propose a constitutional amendment, Congress uses a-
The main way to end a filibuster is by-
invoking the cloture rule
What option is NOT available to a president who has just received a bill passed by congress?
sign the bill after 15 days
As of January 20, 2001, the President receives a yearly salary of
The order of succession to the presidency after the vice president is determined by the-
Presidential Succession Act
The national convention is held to accomplish what?
-unify the party behind its candidates
-pick its presidential candidate
-adopt the party's platform
A state's presidential electors are chose by-
What is a way that presidential disability is determined?
The Vice President and a majority of the Cabinet inform Congress in writing
A formal duty assigned to the Vice President by the Constitution is to-
preside over the senate
What is NOT a formal qualification for the presidency?
must have extensive prior political experience
The Framers of the Constitution called for the President to be elected by-
a body of electors
The President's military powers-
are shared with congress
The President CANNOT exercise judicial power by-
granting pardons in cases of impeachment
President who have been considered stronger and more effective leaders have viewed the presidency as-
what Theodore Roosevelt called a "stewardship"
The difference between a treaty and an executive agreement is that-
the President needs senate approval for a treaty but not for an executive agreement
The President's power to execute the law covers-
federal laws, whether or not the President agrees with them
Treaties can be-
declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, made with Senate's consent, repealed by Congress
What is NOT a reason for the growth of executive power?
demands for limits on Federal Government roles
Unlike staff agencies, line agencies-
are directly responsible for administering programs
What is an example of an independent agency?
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The civil service system was finally established because of-
President Garfield's assassination by an angry office seeker
The civil service system was created partly to ensure that federal employees-
are promoted based on merit
The member of the President's cabinet , after being appointed by the President, are then subject to-
What are the criteria for a President when choosing a cabinet member?
-political party affiliation
-role in presidential election campaign
-qualifications and experience
The largest source of federal revenue from taxes comes from-
Taxes on the production, transportation, sale, or consumption of good are _______ taxes
A gift tax must be paid if a person-
receives gifts valuing more than $10,000 in any one year
The Federal Government is able to borrow money at lower interest rates than private borrowers because-
its securities are considered the safest possible investment
Both corporate and individual income taxes are set at ____ rates.
In recent decades, the Federal Government borrowed money mostly to-
operate the government and pay previous years' debt
During the Cold War, American relations with the Soviet Union were dominated by
What is NOT a stated purpose of the United Nations?
to promote free trade throughout the world
The United States offers foreign aid MOSTLY to-
support struggling democracies and countries that are critical to foreign policy objectives
The main reason for the formation of the United Nations was-
to save future generations from wars
What best describes the role of the secretary of state?
the President's chief aide and advisor on matters of foreign affairs
The duties of the Immigration and Naturalization Service include-
issuing work permits to immigrants, granting asylum to political refugees, preparing applicants for U.S. citizenship
The position of the United States in the Middle East can best be described as that of-
supporter of both Israel and most Arab countries
What do the CIA, Customs Service, and the Coast Guard have in common?
they all have a role in foreign relations
One weakness of the Articles of Confederation was that-
it did not provide for a national judiciary
What federal court exercises both original and appellate jurisdiction?
the Supreme Court
What statement about federal judges is TRUE?
they are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate
The purposes of the 12 federal courts of appeals include-
to relieve the work load of the Supreme Court, to hear appeals from the district courts, to consider cases from several regulatory agencies
The term of office for constitutional court judges is determined by-
The Supreme Court's decision in Marbury v. Madison-
established the Court's power of judicial review
What statement does NOT accurately describe federal district courts?
Like courts of appeals, they have the right to listen to appeals.
The courts of appeals hear cases that have been appealed from-
the district courts, U.S. Tax Court, the decisions of federal regulatory agencies
Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction over types of cases involving-
a foreign government official, a person accused of a federal crime, the infringement of a copyright
The independence of the judicial branch is ensured by the-
manner in which federal judges are chosen, terms federal judges serve, salaries of federal judges
What statement about commercial speech is TRUE?
Commercial speech is protected by the 1st and 14th amendments.
What has received the most limited 1st Amendment protection?
radio and television
The 10 Amendments known as the Bill of Rights were originally intended as restrictions against-
the new National Government
Under the Establishment Clause, the government still has the power to do what?
-use tax money to pay for busing students to parochial schools
-provide public funds for some uses in church-related schools
-exercise control over public, seasonal displays
In deciding cases involving laws against sedition, the Supreme Court has-
developed the "clear and present danger" rule
The main reason that there is no exact definition of the due process guarantees is that the-
The Supreme Court only defines the guarantees on a case-by-case basis.
To have a fair trial, a person is guaranteed what?
trial within a reasonable time, trial by a jury, adequate defense
The main reason the Constitution dealt specifically with the crime of treason was that-
the Framers knew the charge of treason can be used for political reasons
The most important difference between procedural and substantive due process is that-
procedural due process deals with governmental methods and how they are used, whereas substantive due process deals with the fairness of laws
When arresting a person, police must-
have probable cause to believe the person is involved in criminal activity
The States' police power is defined as the right to-
-protect public health, safety
-the general welfare
What statement about the 4th Amendment is TRUE?
It forbids unreasonable searches and seizures
The only crime that is specifically defined in the Constitution is-
In the past, women have been denied what?
the right to own property
Laws that treat men and women differently-
may be upheld by the Supreme Court if they meet certain criteria
Citizenship by birth is determined by the rules-
of jus soli and jus sanguinis
Undocumented aliens are those who enter the United States-
without following proper legal procedures
What fact could NOT be used as an example of how minority groups have been treated in the United States?
Cuban Americans fled the Castro dictatorship
One test that the Supreme Court uses to determine the validity of laws that discriminate between groups of people is the-
rational basis test
The response of the Supreme Court to affirmative action programs today can BEST be described as-
conservative in rendering decisions
What part of the Constitution declares that a person can become an American citizen either by birth or naturalization?
The collapse of the Soviet communist government was mainly due to-
its own inability to accommodate the rising demand for widespread democratic reform
A distinctive feature of capitalism is that-
most productive property is owned and operated by private individuals or companies
The form of law enacted both by the people, through referendum or initiative, and by legislative bodies is called-
Many weaknesses of county government are caused by the lack of-
a centralized executive authority
The type of business organization whose income is subject to two taxes, one on profits and one on dividends, is a-
those for whom the Constitution represented a too-powerful central government
first English charter of liberties which included such fundamental rights as trial by jury and due process of law
called for representation in Congress by population or by the amount of money given to the central government
agreement that, in Congress, States be represented equally in the Senate and by population in the House
idea that government should serve the will of the people
a unit into which cities are divided for the election of city council members
the people eligible to vote in any given election
parties that have broken off from one of the major parties
the greatest number of votes cast for a single office
a group that seeks to control government by winning elections and holding public office
people who are strongly loyal to a given party
the practice of voting for candidates of more than one party in any one election
the right to vote, also known as suffrage
the Voting Rights Act of 1965 declared that no new election laws could be enacted in any State without this from the Dept. of Justice
Persons living in a State for a short period of time
means of communication that reach widely dispersed
the instructions voters give to their elected officers
governmental or political attitudes held by a significant number of people
a sample constructed to represent the major characteristics of the universe
a sample in which each member of the universe has an equal chance of being included
Under the 25th amendment, the President nominates a(n)-
authorizes Congress to regulate all commercial interactions between the States
The Federal Government has often relied on this to pay for wars or social programs
would argue for a narrow interpretation of the powers of Congress
Implied powers are based on this, giving Congress the ability to carry out its expressed powers
Necessary and Proper Clause
positive acts of government that seek to make constitutional guarantees a reality for all
false and malicious use of the printed word
the right to gather with others to promote political, economic, and social causes
Guarantee of association
protects the right to hold one's own religious beliefs
Free Exercise Clause
expression by conduct such as carrying a sign or wearing an armband
Recommended textbook explanations
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