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Chapter 1: The Main Themes of Microbiology

STUDY
PLAY
The major types of microorganisms include:

Protozoa
Plants
Animals
Fungi
Algae
Viruses
Bacteria
Protozoa, Fungi, Algae, Viruses, Bacteria
_____ can be seen with the naked eye
Microorganisms
_____ are small, single-celled prokaryotic organisms
Bacteria
_____ are not cellular (acellular) and are composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
Virus
Which term best describes a disease caused by a microorganism?

Communicable
Infectious
Nosocomial
Infectious
Which microbe(s) have a true nucleus?

Virus
Archaea
Protists
Prion
Yeast
Protists, Yeast
Thinking of the two major cell types in the world: a(n) _____ cell contains organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria. However, these organelles are not found in _____ prokaryotic cells.
eukaryotic, prokaryotic
A(n) _____ is a tentative explanation of an observation.
hypothesis
Organisms that are only visible with the aid of a microscope are:

macroscopic
microscopic
microscopic
When organisms are visible to the naked eye, they are called _____.
macroscopic
Which event helped establish the science of microbiology?

The discovery of DNA
The organization of life into taxonomic herarchies
The development of the microscope
The development of the microscope
Put these levels of classification in order from most general to most specific.

Genus, Species, Kingdom
Kingdom, Genus, Species
Taxonomy involves _____ and _____ living things.

searching for
controlling
classifying
naming
classifying, naming
The germ theory of disease stated that:

microorganisms could cause infection and disease
all human diseases are caused by infectious agents
handwashing is the best means to prevent disease
life only comes from existing life
microorganisms could cause infection and disease
Koch's four _____ are a series of proofs that establish whether an organism is pathogenic and which disease it causes.
postulates
All cells contain a cell _____.
membrane
_____ is the specific study of microscopic organisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

Microbiology
Biology
Microscopy
Microbiology
Which of the following is NOT a term used to describe microscopic organisms?

Microorganisms
Vertebrates
Microbes
Vertebrates
Which of the following describe fungi?

heterotrophic
eukaryotic
unicellular or multicellular
autotrophic
always multicellular
prokaryotic
heterotrophic
eukaryotic
unicellular or multicellular
In the levels of classification, the level right above species is the _____.
genus
Which is correct regarding the capitalization of an organism's name?

staphylococcus aureus
staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
For the organism Escherichia coli, Escherichia represents the _____ level of classification.
genus
All _____ are microorganisms, but not all _____ are microorganisms.

eukaryotes; prokaryotes
prokaryotes; eukaryotes
prokaryotes; eukaryotes
Small, membrane-bound components found inside of an eukaryotic cell, such as mitochondria and lysosomes, are referred to as:

nuclei
organs
systems
organelles
organelles
Which of the following is true about prokaryotic microorganisms?

They are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells.
They contain a nucleus.
They lack cellular organelles.
They are generally larger than eukaryotic cells.
They are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells.
They lack cellular organelles.
Which of the following microorganisms are made up of eukaryotic cells?

Archaea
Protozoans
Bacteria
Fungi
Helminths
Viruses
Protozoans
Fungi
Helminths
An environment or material that is completely free of all life forms (including spores) and virus particles is referred to as _____.
sterile
Who first promoted the use of disinfecting agents in the operating room during surgery?

Van Leeuwenhoek
Lister
Koch
Semmelweis
Lister
List these levels in the hierarchy of classification from most general to least general.

Kingdom
Class
Genus
Species
Family
Kingdom
Class
Family
Genus
Species
Microorganisms account for about 50% of the earth's _____, which is the conversion of light energy from the sun into organic molecules.
photosynthesis
Which process is the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycle of living things?

Respiration
Decomposition
Photosynthesis
Decomposition
Which of the following describe fungi?

eukaryotic
autotrophic
prokaryotic
unicellular or multicellular
always multicellular
heterotrophic
eukaryotic
unicellular or multicellular
heterotrophic
Microorganisms are _____, meaning they are found in all natural habitats as well as in most artificial habitats created by humans.
ubiquitious
_____ organisms can be visualized by the naked eye.

Microscopic
All
Prokaryotic
Macroscopic
Macroscopic
Put these in order by size from largest to smallest.

Bacteria
Colonial alga
Viruses
Reproductive structures of mold
Reproductive structures of mold
Colonial alga
Bacteria
Viruses
Escherichia coli may be abbreviated to _____.
E. coli
For the organism Staphylococcus aureus, aureus represents the _____ level of classification.
species
The process of assigning names to the various taxonomic rankings of a microbial species is knows as:

identification
taxonomy
nomenclature
classification
nomenclature
In the deductive approach to the scientific method, which of the following is the first step?

Performing experiments to test for particular events
Outlining particular events predicted by a hypothesis
Constructing a hypothesis to explain what has been observed or measured
Constructing a hypothesis to explain what has been observed or measured
A scientific _____ is a collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event.
theory
Which of the following is the orderly arrangement of organisms into groups that indicate evolutionary relationships and history?

Classification
Identification
Nomenclature
Classification
Use of a laboratory test to determine the fermentation capabilities of a microbial species is part of the process known as _____.
identification
The technology that is used to alter DNA and switch genetic material from one organism to another is know as:

geomicrobiology
bioremediation
recombinant DNA technology
biotechnology
microbial morphology
recombinant DNA technology
_____ is the process by which microbes carry out the decomposition of harmful chemicals. This is the introduction of microbes into the environment to clean up toxic pollutants.
Bioremediation
A(n) _____ derives benefits from its host and harms its host in the process.

parasite
symbiont
commensal
microorganism
parasite
Which term defines the organism in/on which smaller organisms (or viruses) live, feed, and reproduce?

Host
Virus
Parasite
Host
A(n) _____ disease, such as SARS or viral encephalitis, is a newly identified infectious disease that is becoming more prominent.
emerging
Which type of organism can derive all of the nutrients and factors it requires in order to reproduce from the environment?

Prokaryotic organism
Parasite
Virus
Free-living organism
Free-living organism
The germ theory of disease has been so thoroughly tested that it has become a _____ or principle.
law
Which of the following processes is the decomposition of harmful chemicals by microbes?

Bioremediation
Pasteurization
Fermentation
Bioremediation
Genetic _____, or recombinant DNA technology, is a method of deliberately modifying the genetic structure of an organism to create novel products.
engineering
In the Whittaker system, the most inclusive level of classification is the _____.

species
phylum
kingdom
domain
kingdom
Use of a laboratory test to determine the fermentation capabilities of a microbial species is part of the process known as _____.
identification
Which of the following are aspects of microbiology that are studied by microbiologists?

Microbial genetics
Industrial microbiology
Environment
Horticulture
Agricultural engineering
Microbial genetics
Industrial microbiology
Environment
The level of classification directly under the genus is the _____.

kingdom
order
family
species
species
_____ are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that lack a cell wall.
Protozoa
Which of the following are branches of study in microbiology?

Bacteriology
Virology
Zoology
Mycology
Immunology
Bacteriology
Virology
Mycology
Immunology
What is a helminth?

A parasitic worm
A prokaryotic cell that lives in harsh environments
A filamentous stage in fungal life cycle
A unicellular pathogen
A parasitic worm
_____ are photosynthetic single-celled or multicellular microorganisms are often found in aquatic environments.
Algae
Eukaryotic organisms are:

only single-celled
only multicellular
either unicellular or multicellular
either unicellular or multicellular
Which of the following microorganisms are made up of eukaryotic cells?

Fungi
Archaea
Protozoans
Helminths
Viruses
Bacteria
Fungi
Protozoans
Helminths
Which of the following are prokaryotic microbes?

Plants
Fungi
Archaea
S. aureus
Bacteria
Archaea
S. aureus
Bacteria
_____ DNA technology is used to switch genetic material from one organism to another in order to produce desirable proteins.
Recombinant
A disease that has been known for hundreds of years and that is increasing in occurrence is known as a(n) _____ disease.

emerging
communicable
reemerging
reemerging
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are about _____ infections of all types across the world every year.

10 billion
100 million
1 billion
1 million
10 billion
Which of the following are aspects of microbiology that are studied by microbiologists?

Microbial genetics
Agricultural engineering
Horticulture
Environment
Industrial microbiology
Microbial genetics
Environment
Industrial microbiology
Which scientist established a connection between infections in the maternity ward and physicians with unwashed hands coming directly from autopsies?

Lister
van Leeuwenhoek
Semmelweis
Koch
Semmelweis
Generally, _____ microbes are larger than prokaryotic microbes.
eukaryotic
The unit of measurement for most bacterial cells is _____ and most viruses is _____.

millimeters; nanometers
micrometers; nanometers
micrometers; micrometers
nanometers; micrometers
micrometers; nanometers
Who developed the first single-lens microscope?

Robert Koch
Louis Pasteur
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Ignaz Semmelweis
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Which of the following are contributions made by Koch to the development of microbiology?

Establishment of techniques for the growing of microorganisms in culture.

Development of modern aseptic techniques practices in surgery.

Identification of the agent responsible for causing anthrax.

Realization that hand washing reduces the chance of disease.

Invention of pasteurization for the preservation of food.

Establishment of a series of proofs that verified the germ theory of disease.
Establishment of techniques for the growing of microorganisms in culture.

Identification of the agent responsible for causing anthrax.

Establishment of a series of proofs that verified the germ theory of disease.
Before a hypothesis may be tested using the _____ approach of the scientific method, events that will happen must be predicted by the scientist.
deductive
Microbiology has many branches of study; _____ is the detailed study of fungi, whereas _____ is the study of the body's defenses to infection.
mycology, immunology
True or False: If two microbes are of the same genus, they must be in the same class.
True
True or False: If two microbes are in the same family, they must be the same species.
False
Species is a more specific level of classification than family, therefore, not every species will be part of the same family.
_____ promoted hand washing before Lister introduced disinfection during surgery.
Semmelweis
_____ is the process that uses the sun's energy to produce organic compounds and ATP from carbon dioxide and water.
Photosynthesis
True or False: Staphylococcus aureus is the correct way to write this organism's binomial name when used in a scientific journal article.
False
Need to be italicized.
In the _____ system of nomenclature, organisms are assigned and identified by a two-word name representing the genus and species names.
binomial
Actual classification of organisms, not the naming system.
Taxonomy
All members of the same phylum must also be members of the same _____.

genus
kingdom
species
kingdom
*Members of a higher taxonomic level may not be in the same lower taxonomic level.
The binomial system of nomenclature assigns _____ names to each organism.

four
one
two
three
two
Which of the following microorganisms represent prokaryotic cell types?

Protists
Bacteria
Viruses
Algae
Bacteria
A(n) _____ is any small, membrane-bound component found inside of a eukaryotic cell.
organelle
Which type of microorganism possesses a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, and undergoes mitotic cell division?

Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic
A microorganism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and most membrane-bound organelles, and divides by binary fission is correctly termed a _____.
prokaryote
True or False: All prokaryotes are microorganisms, but not all eukaryotes are microorganisms.
True
The major groups of microbes include the _____, fungi, _____, protozoa, algae, and plants.
bacteria, virus
_____ refers to any life forms that cannot be observed easily without magnification, not only those organisms that cause disease.
Microbes
Which microbe(s) have a true nucleus?

Archaea
Virus
Prion
Protists
Yeast
Protists
Yeast

*Prions are infectious proteins, not cells, and therefore lack a true nucleus.
"Microbes" and "_____" are terms that can be used interchangeably.
microorganisms
Organisms that are only visible with the aid of a microscope are referred to as _____.
microscopic
A good hypothesis must be:

tested once to determine its complete validity

true in all related situations

developed from a scientific theory

able to be supported or rejected by experimentation
able to be supported or rejected by experimentation
True or False: The scientific method takes into account preconceived ideas, such as religion or superstition, of the scientist.
False
A(n) _____ is the term used for ANY disease-causing microorganism.
pathogen
A(n) _____ cell will not contain organelles, such as mitochondria or a nucleus.

prokaryotic
eukaryotic
plant
human
prokaryotic
What cellular structure is found in ALL cells?

Golgi
Lysosome
Cell membrane
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Cell membrane
In both classification systems, the _____ is the most specific level of organization and is immediately under the genus.
species
A protozoan lives and reproduces inside of a human red blood cell. In this case, the human is an example of a(n) _____.

parasite
vector
commensal
host
host
A microbial pathogen is considered a(n) _____ because it derives benefits from its host and harms its host in the process
parasite
_____ is the process of arranging organisms into groups based on relationships and history.
Classification
All members of a family are classified in the same _____.

genus
kingdom
species
kingdom
Fungi, protozoans, and helminths are all composed of _____ cells, whereas bacteria and archaea are composed of _____ cells.
eukaryotic
prokaryotic
Microbiology has a large range of disciplines; _____ involves the monitoring and control of the spread of disease through communities, whereas _____ involves any process in which humans use the metabolism of organism to arrive at a desired product.
epidemiology
biotechnology
For the organism Escherichia coli, coli represents the _____.
species
For the organism Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus represents the _____ level of classification.
genus
The appropriate binomial abbreviation of Staphylococcus aureus is:

Staph
S. aureus
Staph aureus
Staphylococcus a.
S. aureus
Which of the following could be considered nomenclature?

Grouping species of bacteria into the genus Salmonella based on relationships between them.

Assigning a name to a new isolate of Salmonella based on its geography (Salmonella arizona).

Determining that Salmonella species are capable of producing hydrogen sulfide.
Assigning a name to a new isolate of Salmonella based on its geography (Salmonella arizona).
Who developed a series of proofs that verified the germ theory and could be used to determine which organism caused which disease?

Pasteur
Koch
Lister
Redi
Koch
The _____ theory of disease, first proposed in the 1800s, stated that microorganisms could cause infection and illness.
germ
_____ is the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycle of living things.
Decomposition
Viral particles are usually _____ than prokaryotic cells.

smaller
larger
smaller
Which of the following could be considered identification?


Assigning a name to a new isolate of Salmonella based on its geography (Salmonella arizona).

Grouping species of bacteria into the genus Salmonella based on relationships between them.

Determining that Salmonella species are capable of producing hydrogen sulfide.
Determining that Salmonella species are capable of producing hydrogen sulfide.
Microbes are involved in the flow of _____ and food through the world's ecosystems.
energy
What technology involves the deliberate modification of the genetic structure of an organism to create novel products?

DNA fingerprinting
Organic agriculture
Genetic engineering
PCR
Genetic engineering
A free_living organism could be considered the opposite of a _____ organism.
parasitic
In the 1600s, van Leeuwenhoek developed a large collection of single-lens _____.
microscopes
Which cell type is generally larger in size?

Prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells
Which process uses the sun's energy to produce organic compounds and ATP from carbon dioxide and water?

Respiration
Photosynthesis
Bioremediation
Photosynthesis
When a theory is supported by compelling evidence that it is correct, it becomes known as a

law
deduction
hypothesis
law
_____ diseases are among the most common causes of death in much of the world's population.
Infectious
In general, disease-causing organisms are referred to as:

microorganisms
bacteria
pathogens
animacules
pathogens