26 terms

Chemistry chapter 1 vocabulary

the vocabulary in chapter 1 of the Holt mcDougal Modern Chemistry textbook
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Chemistry
the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these changes
chemical
any substance substance that has a definite composition
atom
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom
mass
a measure of the amount of matter
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
compound substance
a substance that can be broken down into simpler stable substances. each compound is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded
Extensive Properties
depend on the amount of matter that is present ex. volume, mass, and the amount of energy
physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
intensive properties
do not depend on the amount of matter ex. melting point, boiling point, density
Physical Change
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
change of state
a physical change of a substance from one to another
solid
definite volume and definite shape
liquid
definite volume no definite shape
gas
neither definite volume nor definite shape
plasma
a high temperature physical state in which atoms lose most of their electrons
chemical property
a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances
chemical change
(reaction) a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
reactants
the substances that react in a chemical change
products
the substance formed by the chemical change
mixture
a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity an properties
homogeneous
mixtures that are uniform in composition (solutions)
heterogenous
mixtures that are not uniform
pure substance
a fixed composition with each sample having exactly the same properties and composition
groups/ families
the vertical columns of the periodic table
periods
horizontal rows of the elements in the periodic table