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Sagebrush Rebellion
A political campaign in the late 1970s that resulted as miners, ranchers, loggers, developers, farmers, and others joined together to try to greatly reduce government regulation and to persuade legislators to sell or lease these lands to private interests at low prices. This was a return to the thinking of President Hoover to turn all public lands over to private ownership.
Wilderness Act
Made in 1964. Federally protect the wilderness in national forests. Allowed Congress to set aside federally owned land for preservation.
Native American Tribes dominate
During the Tribal Era, the only inhabitants of North America were the Native American Indians. Overall they had a relatively low environmental impact because: very low population density, their lifestyle was a combination of hunting and gathering with limited agriculture and livestock, many Native American cultures taught a deep respect for the land
Rachel Carson
Author of Silent Spring. Exposes the dangers of DDT, the most used pesticide of its time.
George Washington Carver
One of the founders of the Chemurgy movement. The branch of applied chemistry that derives industrial products from agricultural raw materials and the predecessor of modern industrial biotechnology
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901-1909) established wildlife reserves and tripled the size of national forest reserves. He persuaded Congress to grant the president power to designate public land as federal wildlife reserves. The U.S. Forest Service was created in 1905 with Gifford Pinchot as its first chief. The Antiquities Act of 1906 allows the President to protect areas of scientific or historical interest on federal lands as national monuments. In 1907 Congress banned executive withdrawals of public forests. Roosevelt is considered to be the best environmental president.
Paul Ehrlich
He wrote Population Bomb (1968), which predicted large scale famine in the 1970's and 1980's due to the population outgrowing the available resources. Since this didn't come to pass, the book is used by critics of the environmental movement as an example of the tendency of environmental scientists to exaggerate the extent of potential problems.
Barry Commoner
"The Closing Circle"; brought greater public attention, rediscovery of environmental degradation and WE ARE ALL RESPONSIBLE
Garrett Hardin
He is best known for his paper "Tragedy of the Commons" (1968) which proposed the idea that free-access resources will always be abused and therefore depleted by individuals who look out for themselves ahead of the common good.
Franklin Roosevelt
In the 1930s the government bought land and hired workers to restore the country's degraded environment. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established conservation projects and public health projects in the 1930s. The Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) was established in 1933. Two million people obtained work with CCC restoring degraded environments and building dams, etc. The CCC provided jobs, flood control, irrigation water, and cheap electricity. Few changes were made in the 1940s and 1950s due to WWII and economic recovery after the war.
National Park Service
Founded in 1916. Agency that manages all national parks, national monuments and other conservational and historical places.
Gifford Pinchot
First chief of the U.S. Forest Service created by Teddy Roosevelt in 1905. Believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Antiquities Act
Created under Teddy Roosevelt in 1906. Gives the President the power to set land aside for monuments, landmark, and research. Bill Clinton secured more land than any other president.
1st Earth Day
Held April 20, 1970, celebrated by 20 million people
Establishment of EPA (Nixon)
1970- President Richard Nixon established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Apollo Missions
The Apollo program was designed to land humans on the Moon and bring them safely back to earth.
John Muir
(1838-1914) A geologist and naturalist who founded the Sierra Club in 1892. He lobbied for conservation laws. He led the preservationist movement to limit use of public wilderness to hiking and camping. He lobbied for a National Park system. He was responsible for establishing Yosemite National Park in 1890.
Decade of the Environment
1970-1980 when many environmental acts were passed
Federal Land Policy and Management Act
1978- Protects federal lands and involves the public in their management. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) received its first real authority to manage public lands under its control.
Ronald Reagan
Greatly increased private energy and mineral development and timber cutting on public lands during his eight years in office. During this period, federal funding for research on energy conservation and renewable energy resources was drastically cut. Many of Reagan's policies were challenged, strongly opposed in Congress, and resulted in public outrage. The "wise-use" movement was formed in 1988, backed by coal, oil, mining, automobile, timber, and ranching interests. The goals were to weaken/repeal environmental laws and incapacitate the movement.
George W. Bush
Became president in 2001 and proceeded to weaken many environmental and public land use laws and policies. Bush's policies rest on increasing use of fossil fuels and a relaxation of air and water quality standards. He also tried to repeal or weaken most of the pro-environmental measures established by Clinton.
Lacey Act
1900- A conservation law prohibiting the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines. It was the first federal law protecting wildlife, and is still in effect, though it has been revised several times. Today the law is primarily used to prevent the importation or spread of potentially dangerous non-native species.
Jimmy Carter
(1977-1981) Responsive president to environmental concerns. Congress was persuaded to create the Department of Energy with the task of reducing the heavy dependence of the country on imported oil. He appointed environmentalists to key positions and consulted on resource policy matters. Carter helped create a Superfund as part of the Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in 1980 designed to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites. Carter tripled the land in the National Wilderness system and doubled the land in the National Park system.
Endangered Species Act
1973- Passed under Nixon. Identifies threatened and endangered species in the U.S. and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations
Thoreau
Famous American author. Founder of environmentalism. Dedicated his life to the environment, and became an expert on wildlife and botany. Wrote Walden a.k.a. Life in the Woods, an environmental classic about his observations of nature for two years in the Massachusetts woods.
Perkins-Marsh
A scientist and Vermont legislator, published Man and Nature in 1864 (Early Conservation Era) in which he presented studies to show resources must be conserved.
Industrial Revolution
Began 250 years ago leading to a rapid expansion of the production, trade, and distribution of material goods. Major consequences of the industrial revolution include:
the shift from wood (renewable) to fossil fuels (nonrenewable) as the main source of energy, even more intense urbanization, leading to concentrated pockets of waste and disease, huge increase in the available food supply, and better quality of life for many (easily available goods and services, better health care, higher average income)
Agricultural Revolution
Began about 12,000 years ago in several locations throughout the world. People changed their lifestyle away from hunting and gathering and formed settled farming communities with domesticated livestock. Early cultivation styles included slash-and-burn and shifting cultivation. Shifting cultivation involves using a plot of land for only a few years before letting it lay fallow for a couple of decades in order to let the nutrients replenish. There was no reason not to at this point, as land was plentiful in comparison to the population.
Information and Globalization Revolution
About 50 years ago began, including the invention of the television, telephone, home computer, internet, cell phone, etc. Information is now incredibly easy to come by, in fact, in a lot of cases I think there is information overload. No one really knows how this latest revolution is really going to affect the environment. I guess it depends on how people choose to use the information that is now so easily available.
Alice Hamilton
A physician who exposed many dangerous substances such as lead, ceramic dust, and chemical waste which were making many people unhealthy
Water Quality Act
1965; attempt to reduce non-point pollution by creating government watch dog under Dept of Health, Ed and Welfare
Hetch Hetchy
Hetch Hetchy was a beautiful valley in Yosemite. It damming in the 1920's caused major controversy among environmentalists. Opposition was led by John Muir and the Sierra Club.
Bhopal (India)
(1984) carbide pesticide plant released 40 tons of MIC gas immediately killing 3000 people & in total caused up to 22k deaths.
Chernobyl
Nuclear power plant in Russia that had an explosion in 1986 & released radioactive materials into the air
Dr. John Snow
Father of environmental epidemiology (the branch of epidemiology concerned with the discovery of the environmental exposures that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures.)
General Revision Act
American Forestry Assoc. formed in 1875, sixteen years later GRA of 1891 gave Pres. authority to establish forest reserves on public (federal) land
Valdez, Alaska
March 24, 1989, tanker Exxon Valdez hits submerged rocks in Prince William Sound—worst oil spill in US waters.
Clinch River, TN
A huge coal-fired power plant sits on the Clinch River at Carbo in Russell County, Virginia. It was completed in 1957, and it is owned by Appalachian Power, a part of American Electric Power. On June 25, 2008, permits were approved by the state Air Pollution Control Board for another coal-fired power plant, a few miles away outside St. Paul, Virginia, by Dominion Virginia Power. Pollution from mining in the region has caused great concern among environmentalists because several rare species inhabit the river. Some mussels have been reintroduced to the Cleveland, Virginia, area from outside the state the early 2000s after pollution in the 20th century wiped out much of the population. In 2008, a large release of fly ash from the TVA Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant deposited fly ash in the lower section of the river below the confluence of the Emory River.
E.O. Wilson
Put forth a theory (biosociology) that differed from earlier theories, believed that biological factors affect the perception and learning of social behaviors
Wise Use Movement
The "wise-use" movement was formed in 1988 under Ronald Reagan, backed by coal, oil, mining, automobile, timber, and ranching interests. The goals were to weaken/repeal environmental laws and incapacitate the movement. A movement towards greater resource extraction and motorized recreation
Golden Age of Conservation
Refers to Roosevelt's term as president because of the many enviromentally freindly laws and policies he put into effect.
Hunter Gatherer Domination
Hunter-gatherers had a small impact on the environment. The earlier hunter-gatherers collected plants, hunted, fished, and were nomadic, moving with the seasons. They lived in small groups. They had expert knowledge of their natural surroundings. Population growth was slow due to high infant mortality and a shorter life expectancy. Advanced hunter-gatherers had a larger environmental impact. Tools and fire were used. Evidence indicates that they altered the distribution of plants and animals. Low resource use per person, migration, and lack of technology allowed environmental repair to occur.
President Hoover
Promoted resource removal from public lands at low prices to stimulate economic growth. Hoover proposed selling all public lands to private interests for economic development.
Aldo Leopold
Aldo Leopold was a strong proponent of land ethics—that humans have an ethical responsibility to preserve wild nature. As a member of the U.S. Forest Service he became aware of land deterioration of public lands. Leopold founded the profession of game management and was a founder of the Wilderness Society in 1935. Leopold was one of the founders of the conservation and environmental movements of the 20th century. People need to be plain citizens of the Earth instead of its conquerors.
Kyoto Protocol
US does not participate anymore. Limits the emissions of various greenhouse gases.
Lois Gibbs
Environmental activist who started the Love Canal Homeowners Association after she realized her neighborhood was located on top of a toxic waste dump
Ken Saro-Wiwa (Nigeria)
A well-known Nigerian author and television producer, was president of the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), an organization set up to defend the environmental and human rights of the Ogoni people who live in the Niger Delta. Oil-rich land has been exploited by multinational oil companies.
WSSD (Sept 2002, UN)
World Summit on Sustainable Development- Took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002. It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business and non-governmental organizations, 10 years after the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Resulted in the Johannesburg Declaration, which was an agreement was made to restore the world's depleted fisheries for 2015
Ansel Adams
A promoter of environmentalism and social problems, this artist is known primarily for photographs of the natural environment, such as Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite National Park, California.
Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
Wrote The Jungle that described the meatpacking industry and its horrors. He wanted more sympathy for workers, but made the public more concerned about their meat. Outraged people caused Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act (1906) and the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906).
John Audubon
Naturalist and gifted artist who painted American wildfowl in their natural habitat; illustrated the popular "Birds of America" and inspired a society for the protection of birds.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
1969- Promotes enhancement of the environment and the set up of procedural requirements regarding statements of environmental effects and proposed actions
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
1970- Created to protect worker and health. Its main aim was to ensure that employers provide their workers with an environment free from dangers to their safety and health, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions.
Clean Air Act
This 1970 legislation required the government to develop and enforce regulations to protect people from the six most dangerous types of air pollutants.
Montreal Protocol
Very large success. US still participates. Bans CFCs that deplete the ozone layer.
Clean Water Act
1972- Set maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways; aims to make surface waters swimmable and fishable
US Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA)
1978- Promote conservation of energy, efficient use of facilities and resources, and equitable rates to customer
Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act
1975- Regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. Permits and standard before mining surface is broken.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
This law attempted to protect consumers from ineffective products and misleading labels. It also states that all pesticides must be approved by the EPA.
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)
1938- Authorizes the FDA of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to determine the safety of drugs before marketing and to ensure that certain labeling specifications and standards in advertising are met in the marketing of products.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund)
Made by President Jimmy Carter. First implemented as a result of Love Canal. Companies are liable to prove they have sufficient funds for toxic cleanup before the company begins.
Minamata, Japan
1950s- Mental impairments, birth defects, and deaths caused by mercury dumped in Minamata Bay by factory. Mercury entered humans through their diet (fish).
Energy Policy Act
1992- Provides federal support for renewable energy technology and introduced radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain
Pollution Prevention Act (1990)
1990- Law that was the first US environmental law to focus on the reduced generation of pollutants at their point of origin.
Freedom of Information Act (1966)
1966- Act allowing citizens to inspect all government records with the exception of classified military or intelligence documents, trade secrets or private personnel files.
Mining Act (1872)
Governed prospecting and mining of minerals on publicly owned land
Taylor Grazing Act (1934)
Set aside 80 million acres of federal lands for leasing for rangers, removing it from access by homesteaders. Lands managed by the Bureau of land management
Noise Control Act (1965)
EPA has developed criteria for noise and impact for a variety of equipment, engines, aircraft, and railroads
Safe Drinking Water Act
1974- Set maximum contaminant levels for pollutants in drinking water that may have adverse effects on human health
Cuyahoga River (Ohio)
1960- Burns for 8 days due to oil and chemical pollution
3 Mile Island
1979- A nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania that had a partial meltdown that helped the environment movement
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Controls hazardous waste with a cradle to grave system from storage, treatment, transportation to disposal
Marine Mammal Protection Act
1972 - Federal law that gives responsibility of protecting marine animals to the Department of Commerce and the Department of the Anterior; in 1994 you can't harrass marine mammals; doesn't protect polar bear trophies import/export
Paul Hawken
Paul Hawken is an environmentalist, entrepreneur, journalist, and author. Starting at age 20, he dedicated his life to sustainability and changing the relationship between business and the environment. His practice has included starting and running ecological businesses, writing and teaching about the impact of commerce on living systems, and consulting with governments and corporations on economic development, industrial ecology, and environmental policy.
Yucca Mountain, NV
U.S. Department of Energy's potential underground geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.
Thomas Malthus
Malthusian theory that the unchecked population grows exponentially. He wanted to move to a system of checks and balances in order to return to a sustainable level.
Sherwood Rowland/ Mario Molina (CFCs)
Best-known work was the discovery that chlorofluorocarbons contribute to ozone depletion.