psych exam 2

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Terms in this set (144)
spontaneous recovery?reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinctionstimulus generalization?Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulusstimulus discrimination?the learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuliConditioned emotional response?an emotional response that has been linked to a previously nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioningOperant conditioning?created by BF skinner, learning based on the positive or negative consequences of respondingLaw of effect?responses that lead to a desirable affect are repeated, those that produce undesirable results are notReinforcer?any event that follows a response and increases its probability of occurring againPositive reinforcement?occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive eventNegative reinforcement?Occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant eventPunisher?an event or consequence that follows a response and makes that response less likely to happen in the futurePositive punishment?any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occurring again and the process of suppressing a responsenegative punishment?removal of a positive reinforcer after a response is madeoperant extinction?weakening or disappearance of a non-reinforced operant responseShaping?gradually molding responses to a final desired patternContinuous reinforcement?a reward follows every correct responsePartial reinforcement?pattern in which only a portion of all response are reinforcedpartial reinforcement effect?responses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinctionFixed ratio schedule?arrangement where a set number of correct responses must be made to get the reinforcerVariable ratio schedulearrangement where a varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcerFixed interval?Arrangement where a reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced responseVariable interval?Arrangement where a reinforcer is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time has passed since last reinforced responsePrimary reinforcer?Non-learned reinforcer, usually those that satisfy physiological needssecondary reinforcer?A learned reinforcer; often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with primary reinforcerToken reinforcer?A tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips, etc.Observational learning?created by Albert Bandura, Learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actionsDisinhibition?The removal of inhibition; results in acting out that normally would be restrainedDesensitization?A reduction in emotional sensitivity to a stimulusCognitive learning?Higher-level learning involving language, thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipationBloom Taxonomy types of knowledge?Factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitiveBlooms taxonomy how we learn?remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creatinggrowth mindset?belief that intelligence and talents can be developed through hard work and effortFixed mindset?belief that intelligence and talents are inborn and cannot be changedDirect instruction?method of instruction in which information is present by lecture or demonstrationDiscovery learning?learning based on insight and understandingMemory?Mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organization, and retrieving informationSensory memory?fleeting storage system for sensory impressionsIconic memories?visual sensory images that are stored for about half a secondEchoic memories?brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heardShort term memory?storage used to hold small amounts of information unconscious awareness for about a dozen secondsLong term memory?unlimited capacity storage system that can hold information over lengthy periods of timeElaborative processing?making memories more meaningful through processing that encodes links between new information and existing memories and knowledge, either at the time of the original encoding or on subsequent retrievalsMultimedia principle?The idea that people process words and mental images together better than they do words aloneInformation bits?meaningful units of information such as numbers, letters, words, etcchunking?process of grouping similar or meaningful information togetherprocedural memory?holds long term memories for how you do things that require motor or performanceDeclarative memory?stores specific factual information such as names, faces, words, dates, and ideasSemantic memory?serves as a mental dictionary or encyclopedia of basic knowledge about the worldepisodic memory?records personal experiences that are link with specific and placesWhat are the types of long term memory?procedural, declarative, semantic, episodicAvailability?memories currently stores in memory are availableExplicit memory?past experience that is consciously brought to mindImplicit memory?Recollection that a person does not know exists and is retrieved unconsciouslyRepression?the keeping of distressful memories in the unconsciousSuppression?a conscious effort to put something out of awarenessCognition and processing?process of thinking, gaining knowledge, and dealing with knowledgeExperiential processing?thought that is passive, effortless, and automaticReflective processing?thought that is active, effortful, and controlledsynesthia?experiencing one sense in terms normally associated with another senseConcept formation?process of classifying information into meaningful categoriesConjunctive concepts?class of objects that has two or more features in commonRelational concept?concept defined by the relationship between features of an object or between an object and its surroundingsDisjunctive concept?Concept defined by the presence of at least one of several possible featuresLinguistic relativity hypothesis?idea that the words we use not only reflect thoughts but can shape them as wellSemantics?The study of meaning in words and languageDenotative meaning?The exact, dictionary definition of a word or concept, its object meaningConnotative meaning?the subjective, personal, or emotional meaning of a word or conceptInductive thought?going from specific facts or observations to general principlesdeductive thought?going from general principles to specific situationsGeneral solution?defines the requirements for success but not in enough detail to guide further actionfunctional solution?a detailed, practical, and workable solutionHeuristic solutions?A "shortcut" or "rule of thumb" for finding a solution to a problemInsightful solutions?a sudden mental reorganization of a problem that makes the solution obviousfunctional fixedness?tendency to perceive an item as only in terms of its most common usecultural barriers?Values that hold that fantasy is a waste of time; playfulness is only for children; that reason, numbers, logic is good; that feelings are bad, etc.Learned barriers?conventions about uses, meanings, possibilities, taboosPerceptual barriers?habits leading to a failure to identify important elements of a problemconventional thinking?thinking directed toward discovery of a single established correct answerdivergent thinking?thinking that produces many idea or alternatives, a major element in original or creative thoughStages of creative thinking?orientation, preparation, incubation, illumination, verificationStanford binet test?age ranked questions that get harder the older you get and measures 5 cognitive factorsWechsler tests?Developed different IQ tests specifically for adults and children, have verbal and performance scoresWhat motivates us?pleasure, reward, and painXX?femaleXY?maleGender?culturally constructed distinctions between male and female characteristicsGender roles?societal views on how one should act, behaves, think based on perceived gendercastration?surgical excision of testicles or ovariesSterilization?Medical procedures such as vasectomy or tubal ligation that makes a man or a woman infertileerogenous zones?areas of the body that produce pleasure, provoke erotic desire, or bothPhases of sexual response cycle?Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolutionsexual anticipation?though it is wise for partners to set time aside to spend together, spontaneous sex is also encouragedWhat has spiked in the recent years?porn and masturbationpsychogenic?psychological reason why may be not physical reasonsGenito?pelvic pain in women involving dyspareuniaparaphilic disorder?Compulsive sexual behaviors that tend to emotionally handicap people, such as pedophilia, exhibitionism, fetishism, voyeurism, and so onPsychoanalytic theory?created by Freud, personality that emphasizes unconscious forces and conflictsStructure of personality?id, ego, superegoThe ID?power source for the psycheEros?life instinctThanatos?death instinctEgo?decide how to the energy that is given off by the IDSuperego?causes guilt when standards are not metPsychosexual stages?created by freud, erotic urges in childhood had a lasting impact on personality developmentFixation?unresolved conflict or emotional hang-up caused by overindulgence or frustration in one areaOral stage?period where infants are preoccupied with the mouth as a source of pleasure and means of expressionOral dependent personality?person who wants to passively receive attentionoral aggressive personalityA person who uses the mouth to express hostility by shouting, cursing, biting, and so forthAnal stage?pleasure focused on the anus, the potty training phase for infantsanal retentive personalityA person who is obstinate, stingy, or compulsive, and who generally has difficulty "letting go"Anal expulsive personality?A disorderly, destructive, cruel, or messy personPhallic stage?ages 3-6, period of development where focus shifts to the genitalsPhallic personality?a person who is vain, exhibitionistic, sensitive, and narcissisticOedipus complex?a boy's sexual desires toward his motherElectra complex?young girls showing sexual interest in dadLatency stage?phase up until pubertyGenital stage?during puberty and onward, focus on sexual relationshipsAdler?believed that we are social creatures governed by social urges, not biological instinctsCarl jung?believes we all put on a mask toward othersCollective unconscious?A mental storehouse found in the collective unconsciousHumanistic theory?focuses on humans experiences, problems, potentials, and idealsSubjective experience?private perceptions of reality, believe to be as many "real worlds" as peopleCarl Rodgers?believed in the fully functioning personbehavioral personality theories?emphasize that personality is no more, or less, than a collection of relatively stable learned behaviors patternsSituational determinants?external conditions that strongly influence behaviorSocial learning theory?combines learning principles with cognitive processes, socialization, and modeling, to explain behavior, including personalityPsychological situation?situation as it is perceived and interpreted by an individual, not as it exists objectivelyExpectancy?Anticipation about the effect that a response will have especially regarding reinforcementReinforcement value?subjective value that a person attaches to a particular activity or reinforcerpsychology of personality?personality is a persons unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking, emotions, and behaviorTypes of personalities?introvert and extrovertPersonality theories?A system of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles used to understand and explain personality4 broad perspectives?trait, psychodynamic, humanistic, behaviorist and social learningWays to assess personalities?Interviews, direct observation, rating scales, personality questionnaires, MMPI-2, projective tests, thematic appreciationClassifying traits?central, secondary, surface, source