chapter 18 neuro practice questions

A disorder of psychological function sufficiently severe to require treatment by a psychiatrist is called a __________ disorder.

a. neuropsychological
b. psychiatric
c. neurobehavioral
d. neurochemical
e. degenerative
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 110
Terms in this set (110)
A principal difficulty in diagnosing psychiatric disorders is that

a. patients suffering from the same psychiatric disorder often display different symptoms.
b. there is no published set of criteria that diagnosticians can rely on.
c. dream analysis is subjective and time-consuming.
d. after a diagnosis is made, there is no clear course of treatment for the disorder.
e.the trajectory of most psychiatric disorders leads toward an unfavorable outcome.
In the DSM-5, schizophrenia spectrum disorder is preferred to schizophrenia because the symptoms of schizophrenia

a. often involve hallucinations.
b. overlap greatly with several disorders, which are now included under one designation.
c. do not entail a real disease.
d. rarely include incoherent speech or thought.
e. involve brain damage to the entire spectrum.
Hallucinations associated with schizophrenia often take the form of

a. ghostly shapes that "appear" before a person's eyes.
b. religious figures commanding subservience.
c. flashing lights that form a rhythmic pattern.
d. imaginary voices making critical comments.
e. imaginary numbness or tingling in the extremities.
Ricardo has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. He reports hearing voices that command him to apprehend Betty Crocker. Furthermore, he believes that Betty Crocker has been systematically introducing cyanide into the baking products that only he buys, in an effort to slowly poison Ricardo and keep him from attaining his rightful position as leader of Xhgrdax. The voices Ricardo hears are __________ and the plots Ricardo believes are __________ a. delusions; hallucinations b. delusions; delusions c. negative symptoms; positive symptoms d. hallucinations; delusions e.hallucinations; hallucinationsDWhen told that his wife had been gravely injured in an automobile accident, Sid grinned and clapped his hands and shouted, "Happiness comes and goes, but tears will fill my goblet!" Assuming Sid loves his wife and has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, his responses reflect a. hallucinations. b. catatonia. c. delusional thinking. d. avolition. e. inappropriate affect.E"The CIA is using their mind-implants to make me beat my dog!" This kind of statement, uttered by someone diagnosed with schizophrenia, is an example of a a. hallucination b. delusion of persecution c. delusion of being controlled d. delusion of grandeur e. catatonic stateCThe recurrence of any two positive or negative symptoms within the span of __________ is sufficient for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. a. 1 day b. 1 month c. 3 months d. 6 months e. 1 yearBAntipsychotic drugs were first developed during the a. 1990s. b. 1940s. c. 1930s. d. 1970s. e. 1950s.EDrugs that are intended to treat certain symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are classified as __________ drugs. a. antidepressant b. reagent c. antianxiety d. antipsychotic e. diureticDChlorpromazine a. is a benzodiazepine. b. exerts an immediate antipsychotic effect. c. was originally developed as an antihistamine. d. is commonly used in the treatment of depression. e.cures schizophrenia.CThe first two antipsychotic drugs were a. Librium and chlorpromazine. b. chlorpromazine and reserpine. c. l-DOPA and reserpine. d. haloperidol and chlorpromazine. e. haloperidol and Valium.BThe active ingredient of the snakeroot plant is a. chlorpromazine. b. reserpine. c. atropine. d. morphine. e. chlordiazepoxide.BReserpine is not currently used in the treatment of schizophrenia because it a. is ineffective. b. is an antihistamine. c. can produce a dangerous decrease in blood pressure. d. is an anxiolytic. e.violates the dopamine theory of schizophrenia.CBoth chlorpromazine and reserpine take approximately __________ to show their antipsychotic effects in a patient. a. 1 to 2 hours b. 4 or 5 days c. 1 week d. 4 months e.2 to 3 weeksEDopamine agonist is to dopamine antagonist as a. reserpine is to chlorpromazine. b. cocaine is to reserpine. c. reserpine is to amphetamine. d. chlorpromazine is to reserpine. e. amphetamine is to cocaine.BUnlike reserpine, chlorpromazine does not a. reduce the extracellular levels of dopamine. b. increase dopamine levels. c. produce Parkinsonian side effects. d. cause dementia. e. function as a dopamine antagonist.AChlorpromazine binds to dopamine receptors without activating them, and keeps dopamine from binding to them. Accordingly, chlorpromazine is classified as a(n) a. receptor promoter. b. dopamine agonist. c. dopamine antagonist. d. exhibitionist. e. inhibitionist.CHaloperidol is a. a potent antipsychotic drug. b. a D2 receptor ligand. c. .the active ingredient in snakeroot. d. a high-affinity dopamine drug. e. an antidepressant medication.APhenothiazines bind effectively to a. D1 and D2 receptors. b. GABA receptors. c. glutamate receptors. d. acetylcholine receptors. e. epinephrine receptors.AButyrophenones and those phenothiazines that have a great affinity for D2 receptors are potent a. barbiturates. b. antidepressant drugs. c. antipsychotic drugs. d. anxiolytics. e.atypical antipsychotic drugs.CThe first generation of antipsychotic drugs are referred to as a. barbiturates. b. butyrophenones. c. typical antipsychotics. d. parent antipsychotics. e. marginal antipsychotics.CThe clinical effectiveness of typical antipsychotic drugs is positively correlated with the degree to which they bind to a. dopamine. b. glutamate receptors. c. D1 receptors. d. D2 receptors. e. autoreceptors.DClozapine is a. a typical antipsychotic drug. b. the first atypical antipsychotic drug. c. a potent D2 blocker. d. widely used in the treatment of depression. e. widely used in the treatment of mania.BAtypical antipsychotic drugs a. are ineffective treatments for schizophrenia. b. do not bind strongly to D2 receptors. c. do not bind strongly to D3 receptors. d. do not bind strongly to D4 receptors. e. show great effectiveness in treating major depressive disorder.BAn effective atypical antipsychotic drug is a. clozapine. b. buspirone. c. reserpine. d. chlorpromazine. e. iproniazid.AClozapine, like other atypical antipsychotic drugs, a. is used in the treatment of schizophrenia. b. does not produce Parkinsonian side effects. c. has a high affinity for D2 receptors. d. is more effective than typical antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia. e.treats only blunted affect in people with schizophrenia.APsychedelic drugs such as ketamine and phencyclidine are classified as a. psilocybins. b. dissociative hallucinogens. c. dopamine agonists. d. dopamine antagonists. e. classical hallucinogens.BResearch suggests that LSD and other classical hallucinogens produce effects a. by acting as serotonin agonists. b. by acting as serotonin antagonists. c. that cannot be reversed. d. similar to the negative symptoms seen in schizophrenia. e. consistent with bipolar disorder.AThe dissociative hallucinogens, such as ketamine, a. act as dopamine agonists. b. act as dopamine antagonists. c. produce effects that mimic some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. d. produce effects that mimic some of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. e. act as glutamate agonists.CAccording to the _____________ theory, early adverse experiences lead to the development of schizophrenia in genetically susceptible individuals. a. stress b. infection c. birth complications d. neurodevelopmental e. split-brainDStructural brain-imaging studies of individuals with schizophrenia typically reveal a. nothing unusual. b. reduced brain volume. c. an enlarged hippocampus. d. a missing hemisphere. e. damage to the occipital lobe.BThe brain changes that are observed in people with schizophrenia a. are particularly notable in the dopaminergic structures of the brain. b. are evident early and later in the course of the disorder. c. do not usually become apparent until several years after diagnosis. d. are comparatively mild. e.usually dissipate after 3 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotic medication.BTo be diagnosed as major depressive disorder, symptoms must a. last more than 2 weeks. b. not involve anhedonia. c. be triggered by an obvious traumatic event. d. involve a suicide attempt. e. last less than 2 weeks.AClinical depression is also known as a. atypical depression. b. anhedonia. c. major depressive disorder. d. minor depressive disorder. e. generalized anxiety disorder.CDepression is sometimes divided into two categories: reactive depression and __________ depression. a. bipolar b. endogenous c. unipolar d. acute e. chronicBAnxiety disorders, coronary heart disease, and diabetes are often comorbid with a. Parkinson's disease. b. retrograde amnesia. c. major depressive disorder. d. hypomania. e.multiple sclerosis.CDepression affects about __________ percent of the global population a. .1 b. 1 c. 2 to 5 d. 10 to 12 e. 26CA diagnosis of major depressive disorder is up to 2 times more likely in __________ than in __________ . a. younger people; older people b. men; women c. rural dwellers; urban dwellers d. women; men e. older people; younger peopleDIn general, evidence directly linking early experience to the development of major depressive disorder is sparse; however, in cases of _____________ the relation between experience and clinical depression is clear. a. peripartum depression b. preconception depression c. factitious depression d. endogenous depression e.schizotypal depressionAIn 1957, the first drug to be marketed as an antidepressant was a. iproniazid. b. imipramine. c. reserpine. d. clozapine. e. lithium.AIproniazid currently is rarely prescribed for the treatment of depression because a. it is ineffective. b. of the cheese effect. c. of the walnut effect. d. it produces rebound mania. e. of the peanut effect.BIproniazid, the first antidepressant, a. was initially developed as an antipsychotic drug. b. is even more effective against mania. c. usually produces dangerous drops in blood pressure. d. continues to be the most commonly prescribed antidepressant. e. is a monoamine agonist.EMAO inhibitors are no longer used in the treatment of depression because they a. are totally ineffective against depression. b. produce tardive dyskinesia. c. block MAO's ability to break down tyramine. d. are effective only if they are taken with iproniazid. e.cannot be administered orally.CIproniazid is to imipramine as a. tricyclic antidepressant is to MAO inhibitor. b. cheese is to fish. c. MAO inhibitor is to tricyclic antidepressant. d. depression is to mania. e.mania is to depression.CThe first tricyclic antidepressant to be marketed a. was chlorpromazine. b. was imipramine. c. eventually proved to be even more effective against stroke. d. produced a cheese effect. e. was also an MAO inhibitor.BImipramine a. is a serotonin and norepinephrine antagonist. b. blocks the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. c. blocks dopamine receptors. d. is a dopamine antagonist. e. is an MAO inhibitor.BImipramine is a a. tricyclic antidepressant. b. MAO inhibitor. c. phenothiazine. d. butyrophenone. e. serotonin antagonist.AFluoxetine a. is a SSRI. b. is more effective in treating depression than imipramine. c. is more effective in treating depression than SNRIs. d. has more side effects than tricyclic antidepressants. an MAO inhibitorABupropion and agomelatine are classified as a. SSRIs. b. typical antidepressants. c. tricyclic antidepressants. d. MAO inhibitors. e. atypical antidepressants.EFluoxetine is marketed under the name a. Prozac. b. Lithium. c. Imipramine. d. Iproniazid. e. Paxil.AFluoxetine is a slight structural variation of a. tricyclic antidepressants. b. lithium. c. neuroleptics. d. phenothiazines. e. MAO inhibitors.ASelective norepinephrine-reuptake inhibitors are used in the treatment of a. schizophrenia. b. major depressive disorder. c. tuberculosis. d. mania. e. addiction.BSeveral large scale studies have compared the effectiveness of various antidepressants to placebos; these studies have found that a. overall, some classes of antidepressants are more effective than others. b. only 2 percent of depressed patients are helped by antidepressants. c. antidepressants are of little to no benefit for people with severe depression. d. antidepressant medications promote recovery from major depressive disorder. e. the rate of improvement attributed to antidepressant medication is identical to the rate of improvement attributed to placebo.AThe dissociative hallucinogen ketamine a. alleviates depression, even after only a single dose. b. has no side effects. c. eliminates mania. d. is a tricyclic drug. e. is an SSRI.ARemarkably, a single injection of ketamine a. often alleviates depression. b. can trigger a bout of severe depression. c. can trigger mania. d. is widely used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. e. can produce no discernable effects.ASome success has been reported in treating clinical depression with chronic low-level electrical stimulation of the ___________ through implanted electrodes. a. anterior cingulate gyrus of the prefrontal cortex b. amygdala c. posterior thalamus d. hippocampus e. striatumAWhich experimental treatment for clinical depression is noninvasive? a. repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation b. deep brain stimulation c. prefrontal lobotomy d. ketamine e. iproniazidAThe monoamine theory of depression is based on the fact that a. depressed people have high levels of monoamines. b. depressed people have low levels of monoamines. c. most drugs used to treat depression are monoamine agonists. d. most drugs used to treat depression are monoamine antagonists. e. monoamines are present only in people diagnosed with major depressive disorder.CWhen insufficient neurotransmitter is released at a synapse, there is often a compensatory __________ of the receptors. a. up-regulation b. degeneration c. regeneration d. blockade e. realignmentAThe monoamine theory of depression holds that depression is associated with a. underactivity at serotonergic and noradrenergic synapses. b. degeneration of monoamines. c. decreases in dopamine receptors. d. monoamine agonists. e. realignment of MAO inhibitors.AThe neuroplasticity theory of depression proposes that depression results from a. an increase in neuroplastic processes in the prefrontal cortex. b. a decrease in neuroplastic processes in various brain structures. c. an increase in neuroplastic processes in the hypothalamus. d. atypical neuroplastic processes throughout, but restricted to, the limbic system. e. an increase in neuroplastic processes in the posterior occipital lobe.BBrain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) has been of particular interest to researchers because a. treatments that improve depression increase BDNF. b. it plays an important role in mental health. c. BDNF is localized in the prefrontal lobes. d. women have twice as much as men. e. regeneration is not possible without it.AThe genetic contributors to depression seem to be a. a single genetic mutation. b. only two. c. multiple and varied. d. a single gene found only in some people. e. nonexistent.CReductions in __________ have been noted in the frontal cortex and other brain regions in people diagnosed with major depressive disorder. a. white matter b. the shape of cell bodies c. red blood cells d. white blood cells e. gray matterAWhat is the defining feature necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I? a. experiencing at least one manic episode b. the presence of severe depression c. experiencing a series of manic episodes in rapid succession d. thoughts of suicide e. the presence of hallucinationsAGiuseppe has been told by his family physician that his changes in behavior are caused by "hypomanic episodes" and that he has also been experiencing "major depressive episodes." At the physician's urging, Giuseppe visits a clinical psychologist who confirms the pattern: "At least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode." What diagnosis will the clinician apply to Giuseppe's condition? a. bipolar I disorder b. bipolar II disorder c. hypomania d. persistent depressive disorder e. hypnothermiaBDrugs that reduce depression without increasing mania, or reduce mania without increasing depression, are called a. mood stabilizers. b. SSRIs. c. tricyclic antidepressants. d. MAO inhibitors. e. monoamines.AWhich theory proposes that bipolar disorder results from a dysfunctional brain reward system that overreacts to rewards or the lack thereof? a. HPA theory b. reward hypersensitivity theory c. STP theory d. selective euthymia hypothesis e. disruptive expressivity theoryBBest estimates suggest that there are __________ to __________ genes associated with bipolar disorder. a. ten; twenty b. hundreds; thousands of c. fifty; sixty d. thousands; millions of e. twenty; fiftyBReductions in __________ have been noted in the frontal cortex and other brain regions in people diagnosed with bipolar disorder. a. white matter b. the shape of cell bodies c. red blood cells d. white blood cells e. gray matterEWhen anxiety is so severe that it disrupts functioning, it is generally referred to as a. fear. b. hypertension. c. an anxiety disorder. d. a panic disorder. e. a phobia.CVarious studies suggest that between _________percent of people will suffer from an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives. a. 0.5 and 1.0 b. 14 and 34 c. 1 and 2 d. 2 and 8 e. 8 and 12BPanic disorder, specific phobias, and agoraphobia are all a. schizophrenia spectrum disorders. b. depressive disorders. c. anxiety disorders. d. bipolar disorders. e. affective disorders.C_______________ is a psychiatric disorder that is characterized by stress responses and extreme feelings of anxiety and worry about a large number of different activities or events. a. Generalized anxiety disorder b. A specific phobia c. Agoraphobia d. Panic disorder e. Bipolar disorder type IIA___________ is characterized by a pathological fear of public places and open spaces. a. Panic disorder b. Bipolar disorder type I c. Agoraphobia d. Schizophrenia e. Generalized anxiety disorderCAnxiety disorders are a. reasonably rare in the general population. b. the most prevalent of all psychiatric disorders. c. often treated with serotonin antagonists. d. the same as panic disorders. e.the same as bipolar type III disorder.BIt has been estimated that benzodiazepines are currently being used by approximately __________ of adult North Americans. a. 5 percent b. 2 percent c. 1 percent d. 19 percent e. 33 percentABenzodiazepines a. are GABAA receptor agonists. b. are monoamine agonists. c. are catecholamine antagonists. d. are monoamine antagonists. e. bind to serotonin receptors.AAddiction, tremor, nausea, and ataxia are all possible side effects of a. SSRIs. b. fluoxetine. c. lithium. d. benzodiazepines. e. SNRIs.DClinical depression and anxiety are often comorbid, which means that they a. both increase the likelihood of suicide. b. both increase susceptibility to terminal illness. c. have the same effect on neurotransmitters. d. tend to occur together in the same individual. e. both commonly require hospitalization.DThe elevated-plus-maze test is a commonly used model of a. clinical depression. b. anxiety. c. mania. d. bipolar disorders. e. phobias.BWhich animal model assesses anxiety by measuring the amount of time a rat spends spraying bedding material? a. elevated-plus-maze test b. risk-assessment test c. defensive-burying test d. forced-mating procedure e. nocturnal abatement testCThe __________ is used to study anxiety in laboratory rats. a. T-maze forced-choice test b. defensive-burying test c. radial-arm-maze test d. Wasson card-sorting test e. threat-reduction testBBecause anxiety disorders show a high degree of __________, it has proven difficult to identify the critical epigenetic mechanisms involved in these disorders. a. heterogeneity b. resistance to diagnosis c. prevalence d. scarcity in the population e. homogeneityAWhich neurotransmitter has been most often implicated in anxiety disorders because of the effects of benzodiazepines? a. GABA b. dopamine c. norepinephrine d. glutamate e. acetylcholineATics are the primary symptom of a. Parkinson's disease. b. Tourette's disorder. c. multiple sclerosis. d. epilepsy. e. Addison's disease.BCoprolalia refers to a. uncontrolled grimacing. b. repeating words. c. grunting. d. uttering obscenities. e. barking.DSome patients with Tourette's disorder also display signs of a. bipolar type I disorder. b. obsessive-convulsive disorder. c. auditory and visual hallucinations. d. schizophrenia. e. bipolar type II disorder.BTourette's disorder occurs more frequently in a. siblings. b. dizygotic twins. c. male children than in female children. d. female children than in male children. e. the elderly.CThe tics present in Tourette's disorder are usually treated by the administration of a. antipsychotic medication. b. classical conditioning. c. antianxiety medication. d. punishment. e. antidepressant medication.AThe chance of monozygotic twins both having Tourette's disorder is about __________ percent. a. 10 b. 25 c. 50 d. 80 e. 100DIn functional brain-imaging studies of Tourette's patients who are suppressing their tics, abnormal activity has been consistently observed in the caudate nuclei and a. prefrontal cortex. b. cerebellum. c. primary motor cortex. d. association motor cortex. e. dorsal horn.AAccording to P.H., a medical school faculty member who has Tourette's disorder, it is more a disorder of the __________ than of the patient. a. amygdala b. prefrontal cortex c. onlooker d. brain e. parentCHow many gene therapies are currently in widespread routine clinical use? a. 0 b. 2 c. 8 d. over 50 e. over 100AResearch designed to translate basic scientific discoveries into clinical treatments is called a. clinical research. b. translational research. c. neuropsychology research. d. clinical psychology research. e.application research.BThe subjects of the vast majority of clinical trials are a. human volunteers. b. rats. c. mice. d. monkeys. e. genes.AClinical trials are typically conducted in __________ separate phases. a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 6 e. 10BDetermining the maximum safe dose for humans typically occurs in the __________ phase of human clinical trials. a. first b. second c. third d. fourth e. pre-trialAThe goal of the second of the three phases of human clinical trials is a. the development of methods for the efficient synthesis of the drug. b. identifying the most effective doses and schedules of treatment. c. testing with animal models. d. screening for safety. e. demonstrating that the drug is clinically effective.BThe final phase of human clinical trials usually involves a. an absence of control groups. b. double-blind procedures. c. yoked controls. d. mass marketing. e. complementary testing on other primates.BAn ideal placebo is a control drug that produces the same __________ effects as the drug that is being tested. a. therapeutic b. side c. psychological d. neurochemical e. comparativeBDrugs for which the market is too small for them to be profitable are called __________ drugs. a. orphan b. translational c. noneconomic d. absence e. activeAS.B., the biopsychology student who suffered from a bipolar disorder, is the ideal case with which to end Biopsychology because a. he had bipolar disorder type I. b. he was eventually cured. c. he demonstrated the importance of independent thinking by researching and challenging his own prescription and by suggesting a better alternative. d. he was able to help other students. e. he received drug therapy for a psychological disorder.C