an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
the lawmaking body of British government
Salutary Neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
secretly importing prohibited goods or goods on which duty is due
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
French and Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes)
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Declaratory Act
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.
Townshend Duties
Popular name for the Revenue Act of 1767 which taxed glass, lead, paint, paper and tea entering the colonies
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Intolerable Acts
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Quartering Act
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
Lexington and Concord
the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775)
Strengths for British Army
Weel equipped soldiers, well paid, well fed, well disciplined, and funds were easily raised.
Weaknesses for Continental Army
Difficulty raising funds to purchase basic supplies for troops, Indian Tribes did not side with them.
Strengths for Continental Army
Had a grand cause to fight, for independence. Had alliance with the French
Weaknesses for British Army
Fought war far from home. Supplies took months to reach soldiers.
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
German soldiers who fought for the British
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
William Pitt
English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778)
First and Second Continental Congress
brought together delegates from each of the thirteen colonies except Georgia; represents first time colonists actually met together; served as a model for forming the U.S. government.
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Role of Women in Revolution
women became vocal and violent; became much more powerful; roles grew larger in society
Battle of Trenton
December 25th. Washington crosses Deleware River and takes advantage of he Hessains. Becuase they were celebrating Christmas. He takes the Hessains by suprise and its a victory for the Continental Army.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Winter at Valley Forge
George Washington built a camp for his army and was placed in a very cold area in the winter. They were not fed, housed, or clothed properly. Americans found out about this mistreatment and came to help. The army, despite their difficulties, still prepared for future wars.
Yorktown, VA.
Last battle in the American Revolution
commander of the British forces in the American War of Independence
Articles of Confederation weaknesses
foreign nations didnt respect, could only ask for money, paper continental&was worthless, lack of control between states trade, no natural court, no national exectutive, no president
Articles of Confederation strengths
declare war, make treaties, manage indian affairs, establish post offices, coin money, admit new states
Shays Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Constitutional Convention
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
formal approval
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution